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Volume 10, Number 11—November 2004
THEME ISSUE
ICEID & ICWID 2004

International Conference on Women and Infectious Diseases (ICWID)

Sexual Power and HIV Risk, South Africa

Audrey E. Pettifor*Comments to Author , Diana M. Measham†‡, Helen V. Rees*, and Nancy S. Padian‡
Author affiliations: *University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; †University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California, USA; ‡University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA

Main Article

Table 3

Weighted frequencies and p values for relationship control factors, HIV status and risk behavior, and sociodemographic factors by condom use consistency with most recent sexual partner in past 12 months among sexually experienced women 15–24 years of age, South Africa, 2003

Characteristic Always used condom 
with last partner in 
past 12 mo (28.6%) Did not always use 
condom with last partner in past 12 mo (71.4%) Chi-square 
p value
High relationship control (score 0–2) with current partner
Low relationship control (score 3–4) with current partner 86.5
13.5 66.6
33.4 < 0.001
Last partner in past 12 mo forced to have sex
Last partner in past 12 mo did not force to have sex 1.0
99.0 5.0
95.0 < 0.001
Mean condom use self-efficacy score (0 low–3 high)b 2.68 2.16 < 0.001
Transactional sex with last partner in past 12 mo
No transactional sex with last partner in past 12 mo 1.1
98.9 1.5
98.5 0.6
Last partner in past 12 mo >10 y older
Last partner in past 12 mo <10 y older 3.2
96.8 6.5
93.5 0.01
Age at sexual debut ≤14 y
Age at sexual debut >14 y 4.0
96.0 8.4
91.6 0.001
>1 lifetime sexual partners
1 lifetime sexual partner 47.7
52.3 41.7
58.3 0.23
Sex in past month with last partner in past 12 mo <5
Sex in past month with last partner in past 12 mo >5 96.4
3.6 87.5
12.5 < 0.001
Talked about condom use with last partner in past 12 mo
Did not talk about condom use with last partner in past 12 mo 98.0
2.0 72.1
27.9 < 0.001
Perceive self to be at high risk for HIV infection
Perceive self to be at low or no risk for HIV infection 30.0
70.0 43.3
56.7 < 0.001
Age 15–19 y
Age 20–24 y 54.0
46.0 33.6
66.4 < 0.001
Completed high school
Did not complete high school 34.5
65.5 24.1
75.9 0.01
Live in a rural area
Live in an urban area 38.2
61.8 51.2
48.8 0.09
Race Black African
Other race 90.9
9.1 88.6
11.4 0.23
Religion very important in everyday life
Religion not very important in everyday life 88.7
11.3 84.4
15.6 0.12
Married
Single 0.6
99.4 6.5
93.5 < 0.001

aSource: National Survey of HIV and Sexual Risk Behavior among Young People Age 15–24, South Africa, 2003.
bt test for differences between means (tested using the lincom command in STATA for svymeans).

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