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Volume 10, Number 3—March 2004

Research

Legionella Infection Risk from Domestic Hot Water

Paola Borella*Comments to Author , M. Teresa Montagna†, Vincenzo Romano-Spica‡§, Serena Stampi¶, Giovanna Stancanelli#, Maria Triassi**, Rachele Neglia*, Isabella Marchesi*, Guglielmina Fantuzzi*, Daniela Tatò†, Christian Napoli†, Gianluigi Quaranta‡, Patrizia Laurenti‡, Erica Leoni¶, Giovanna De Luca§, Cristina Ossi#, Matteo Moro#, and Gabriella Ribera D’Alcalà**
Author affiliations: *University of Modena and Reggio E., Modena, Italy; †University of Bari, Bari, Italy; ‡Catholic University in Rome, Rome, Italy; §University Institute of Physics Sciences, Rome, Italy,; ¶University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy; #S. Raffaele Hospital, Milan, Italy; **University Federico II of Naples, Naples, Italy

Main Article

Table 2

Chemical, physical, and microbiologic characteristics of the examined hot water samples

Characteristic Mean SD Minimum Maximum
Ca (mg/L)
85.0
33.0
0.1
252.0
Mg (mg/L)
17.6
10.6
0.1
90.1
Total hardness (°F)
28.3
11.4
0.3
100.1
Sampling temperature (°C)
41.9
12.4
17.0
65.0
Operating temperature (°C)
52.9
10.0
20.0
90.0

Geometric mean
Median
5th percentile
95th percentile
Fe (μg/L)
15.0
21.0
0.1
171.5
Mn (μg/L)
2.4
3.0
0.1
13.9
Cu (μg/L)
11.5
14.2
0.1
87.5
Zn (μg/L)
62.6
100.0
1
776.4
Free Cl (μg/L)
9.2
26.4
0.0
250.0
Oxidizability (mg/L O2)
0.63
0.64
0.24
1.70
Pseudomonas spp. (CFU/100 mL)a
139.2
223.6
1.0
1.0 × 104
Total count at 36°C (CFU/mL)a
98.6
95.0
3.4
1.7 × 103
Total count at 22°C (CFU/mL)a 50.4 30.0 4.0 3.9 × 103

aPositive samples only.

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