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Volume 10, Number 3—March 2004

Research

Legionella Infection Risk from Domestic Hot Water

Paola Borella*Comments to Author , M. Teresa Montagna†, Vincenzo Romano-Spica‡§, Serena Stampi¶, Giovanna Stancanelli#, Maria Triassi**, Rachele Neglia*, Isabella Marchesi*, Guglielmina Fantuzzi*, Daniela Tatò†, Christian Napoli†, Gianluigi Quaranta‡, Patrizia Laurenti‡, Erica Leoni¶, Giovanna De Luca§, Cristina Ossi#, Matteo Moro#, and Gabriella Ribera D’Alcalà**
Author affiliations: *University of Modena and Reggio E., Modena, Italy; †University of Bari, Bari, Italy; ‡Catholic University in Rome, Rome, Italy; §University Institute of Physics Sciences, Rome, Italy,; ¶University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy; #S. Raffaele Hospital, Milan, Italy; **University Federico II of Naples, Naples, Italy

Main Article

Table 4

Univariate analysis of system and building characteristics associated with microbial contaminationa

Characteristic OR (95% CI)
Legionella spp. yes/no (33/113) Pseudomonas spp. yes/no (56/90) Total count at 36°C high/low (62/84)b Total count at 22°C high/low (35/111)b
Central heater
9.24c (3.87 to 22.05)
0.87 (0.40 to 1.85)
0.92 (0.44 to 1.94)
1.36 (0.59 to 3.12)
Distribution site distance >10 m
8.10c (3.41 to 19.23)
0.47* (0.22 to 1.00)
1.08 (0.54 to 2.17)
1.51 (0.69 to 3.32)
Tank capacity 
>100 L
5.21c (2.14 to 12.67)
0.58 (0.24 to 1.43)
0.58 (0.24 to 1.39)
0.64 (0.22 to 1.83)
Age of heating plant
>10 y
3.24d (1.38 to 7.59)
1.85e (0.94 to 3.64)
1.14 (0.59 to 2.19)
1.58 (0.73 to 3.43)
House floor >3rd
2.35e (1.04 to 5.30)
1.38 (0.66 to 2.87)
0.94 (0.45 to 1.96)
1.24 (0.54 to 2.83)
Apartments >12/building
2.26e (0.99 to 5.18)
1.48 (0.75 to 2.91)
1.00 (0.52 to 1.94)
1.13 (0.53 to 2.44)
Sampling temperature >50°C
0.62 (0.26 to 1.49)
0.91 (0.24 to 3.40)
1.16 (0.54 to 2.51)
1.22 (0.54 to 2.75)
Operating temperature >50°C 0.69 (0.29 to 1.67) 0.32d (0.15 to 0.70) 1.74 (0.80 to 3.76) 0.57 (0.24 to 1.36)

aOR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval.
bHigh >100 CFU/mL.
cp < 0.001.
dp < 0.01.
ep < 0.05.

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