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Volume 10, Number 5—May 2004

Research

Antimicrobial Resistance in Commensal Flora of Pig Farmers

Hélène Aubry-Damon*, Karine Grenet†, Penda Sall-Ndiaye‡, Didier Che*, Eugenio Cordeiro*, Marie-Elisabeth Bougnoux¶, Emma Rigaud‡, Yann Le Strat*, Véronique Lemanissier*, Laurence Armand-Lefèvre†, Didier Delzescaux§, Jean-Claude Desenclos*, Michel Liénard‡, and Antoine Andremont†Comments to Author 
Author affiliations: *National Institute for Public Health, Saint-Maurice, France; †Bichat Hospital, Assistance Publique, Paris, France; ‡National Medical Insurance System for Agriculture, Bagnolet, France; §National Federation of Cattle and Pig Raisers, Paris, France; ¶Hôpital Ambroise Paré, Paris, France

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Table 4

Fecal isolation of selected microorganisms in pig farmers and in nonfarmersa

Microorganisms
Prevalence no. (%)
Prevalence ratio CI 95% p value
Pig farmers Nonfarmers
Enterococci





Any
71/109
(65.1
80/109
(73.4)
0.89
0.75 to 1.05
0.21
Resistant to
Erythromycin
38/71
(53.5)
46/80
(57.5)
0.93
0.70 to .24
0.62
Vancomycin
6b/71
(8.5)
10c/80
(12.5)
0.68
0.26 to 1.77
0.42
Enterobacteriad
Any
103/109
(94.5)
100/109
(91.7)
1.03
0.96 to 1.10
0.58
Resistant to
Ampicillin
68/103
(66.0)
55/100
(55.0)
1.20
0.96 to 1.50
0.11
Ceftazidime
0

0

NAd
NA
NA
Streptomycin
69/103
(67.0)
48/100
(48.0)
1.40
1.09 to 1.78
<0.01
Kanamycin
29/103
(28.2)
23/100
(23.0)
1.22
0.76 to 1.96
0.40
Gentamicin
10/103
(9.7)
3/100
(3.0)
3.24
0.92 to 11.42
0.05
Chloramphenicol
30/103
(29.1)
14/100
(14.0)
2.08
1.17 to 3.68
<0.01
Tetracycline
73/103
(70.9)
43/100
(43.0)
1.65
1.27 to 2.13
<0.01
Nalidixic acid
22/103
(21.4)
3/100
(3.0)
7.12
2.20 to 23.0
<0.01
Escherichia colif
Any
100/109
(91.7)
98/109
(89.9)
1.02
0.94 to 1.10
0.64
Resistant to
Ampicillin
36/100
(36.0)
34/98
(34.7)
1.04
0.71 to 1.51
0.85
Ceftazidime
0

0

NA
NA
NA
Streptomycin
50/100
(50.0)
35/98
(35.7)
1.40
1.01 to 1.95
0.04
Kanamycin
10/100
(10.0)
12/98
(12.2)
0.82
0.37 to 1.80
0.62
Gentamicin
2/100
(2.0)
0

NA
NA
0.99
Chloramphenicol
11/100
(11.0)
9/98
(9.2)
1.20
0.52 to 2.76
0.67
Tetracycline
52/100
(52.0)
23/98
(23.5)
2.22
1.48 to 3.32
<0.01
Cotrimoxazole
37/100
(37.0)
12/98
(12.2)
3.02
1.68 to 5.44
<0.01
Nalidixic acid
11/100
(11.0)
0

NA
NA
<0.01
Staphylococcus aureus
4/109
(3.7)
2/109
(1.8)
2.0
0.37 to 10.69
0.68
Yeasts 19g/109 (17.4) 18h/109 (17.4) 1.06 0.59 to 1.90 1.00

aMatched fecal samples were available for 109 pig farmers and nonfarmer pairs only.
bEnterococcus faecium: 0, E. gallinarum: 6.
cE. faecium: 2, E. gallinarum: 5, E. casseliflavus: 3.
dUsing direct plating plating on Drigalski agar without or with antimicrobial agents (first technique, see Methods).
eNA, not applicable.
fFrom the predominant fecal flora (second technique, see Methods).
gCandida albicans: 1, Geotrichum sp.: 15, C. glabrata: 2, Rhodolulora sp.: 1.
hC. albicans: 2, Geotrichum sp.: 14, Saccharomyces cerevesia: 2.

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