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Volume 10, Number 6—June 2004

Dispatch

Bacteriophages and Diffusion of β-Lactamase Genes

Maite Muniesa*, Aurora García†, Elisenda Miró†, Beatriz Mirelis†, Guillem Prats†1, Juan Jofre*, and Ferran Navarro†Comments to Author 
Author affiliations: *University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; †Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona, Spain

Main Article

Table

Levels of fecal indicators; fecal coliforms and somatic coliphages in the samples used in this studya

Sample a Fecal coliforms (CFU/mL–1)b Somatic coliphages (PFU/mL–1)b Somatic coliphages in the purified fraction (PFU mL–1) c blaOXA PCR blaPSE PCR Other bla genesd
Plant 1A (10 mL)
9.7 x 104 (2.2 x 104)
5.1 x 104 (3.6 x 103)
2.0 x 106
+e
+

Plant 1A (10 mL + CsCl)
9.7 x 104 (2.2 x 104)
5.1 x 104 (3.6 x 103)
7.5 x 104
+
+

Plant 1A (100 mL)
9.7 x 104 (2.2 x 104)
5.1 x 104 (3.6 x 103)
1.0 x 107
+
+

Plant 2A (10 mL)
9.2 x 104 (7.2 x 103)
5.1 x 104 (4.4 x 103)
1.3 x 106
+
+e

Plant 2A (10 mL + CsCl)
9.2 x 104 (7.2 x 103)
5.1 x 104 (4.4 x 103)
8.5 x 104
+
+

Plant 2A (10 mL)
9.2 x 104 (7.2 x 103)
5.1 x 104 (4.4 x 103)
1.3 x 106
+
+

Plant 2B (10 mL)
2.0 x 104 (9.6 x 103)
8.3 x 104 (4.6 x 103)
2.5 x 106
+
+

Plant 2C (10 mL)
9.0 x 104 (5.0 x 103)
6.2 x 104 (1.7 x 103)
1.5 x 106
+
+

Plant 3A (10 mL)
2.5 x 105 (6.0 x 104)
8.9 x 104 (3.0 x 103)
3.0 x 106
+
+

Plant 3B (10 mL)
3.0 x 105 (1.7 x 104)
9.3 x 104 (2.0 x 103)
2.5 x 106
+
+e

Poultry (10 mL)
1.8 x 106 (7.2 x 105)
7.9 x 104 (1.5 x 103)
1.0 x 106
+
+

Pigs (10 mL)
3.6 x 105 (1.3 x 105)
1.8 x 105 (1.7 x 104)
6.1 x 106
+
+e

Cattle (10 mL) 2.3 x 104 (7.2 x 103) 8.5 x 102 (2.7 x 102) 3.5 x 104 + +

aResults of nested-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the β-lactamases blaOXA and blaPSE. Parentheses indicate the protocol used (phage DNA obtained from 10 mL, 100 mL or from 10 mL after CsCl purification)
bArithmetic mean of three independent replicas. Standard deviation in parentheses.
cBacteriophage enumeration of 10 μL of the purified fraction of the sample used for DNA extraction and PCR.
dThe studied bla genes were: blaTEM, blaSHV, blaCMY, blaLAT, blaMOX, blaFOX, and blaVIM genes family; blaOXA-1-, blaPSE-1-, blaCTX-M-, and blaOXA-2-related genes.
eSequenced PCR fragments (see Figure).

Main Article

1Current affiliation is Hospital Vall d’Hebrón, Universitat Autònoma, Barcelona, Spain.

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