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Volume 10, Number 6—June 2004

Research

Environmental Exposure and Leptospirosis, Peru

Michael A.S. Johnson*†, Hannah Smith†, Priya Joseph†, Robert H. Gilman*†, Christian T. Bautista*‡, Kalina J. Campos*§, Michelle Cespedes†, Peter Klatsky†, Carlos Vidal¶, Hilja Terry†, Maritza M. Calderon*§, Carlos Coral†, Lilia Cabrera†, Paminder S. Parmar†, and Joseph M. Vinetz#Comments to Author 
Author affiliations: *Asociación Benéfica Prisma, Lima, Peru; †Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA; ‡U.S. Naval Medical Center Research Detachment, Lima, Peru; §Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru; ¶Ministry of Health, Iquitos, Peru; #University of California San Diego School of Medicine, La Jolla, California, USA

Main Article

Table 3

Risk factors associated with leptospiral seropositivity, Belena

Risk factor
Prevalence
Incidence (n = 158)
OR (95% CI) p RR (95% CI) p
Living in San José
1.90 (1.27 to 2.83)
0.002
1.88 (0.83 to 4.23)
0.191
Bathing in the river
1.75 (1.09 to 2.82)
0.021
2.70 (0.83 to 8.78)
0.132
Living near the river
1.58 (1.07 to 2.32)
0.022
1.94 (0.84 to 4.47)
0.149
Owning a television
1.55 (1.01 to 2.38)
0.043
1.56 (0.66 to 3.69)
0.438
Fisherman (male)
1.57 (0.86 to 2.87)
0.141
1.94 (0.73 to 5.18)
0.250
Not wearing shoes in the field
1.63 (0.85 to 3.13)
0.139
2.29 (0.93 to 5.59)
0.135
Drinking primarily river water
1.28 (0.82 to 2.01)
0.272
0.91 (0.35 to 2.40)
0.999
Rats in the workplace
1.14 (0.52 to 2.48)
0.740
0.79 (0.12 to 5.18)
0.999
Rats in the home
1.36 (0.00 to 3.61)
0.538
NA
NA
Dogs in the workplace
1.12 (0.66 to 1.90)
0.684
1.72 (0.69 to 4.31)
0.317
Dogs in the home
0.67 (0.43 to 1.02)
0.063
1.06 (0.46 to 2.44)
0.891
Pigs in the home
0.77 (0.38 to 1.53)
0.452
0.44 (0.06 to 3.06)
0.699
Education (minimal vs. secondary)
1.37 (0.90 to 2.05)
0.139
1.59 (0.56 to 4.51)
0.368
Education (secondary vs. superior)
2.63 (0.58 to 11.96)
0.207
NA
NA
Education (minimal vs. superior)
3.60 (0.81 to 15.99)
0.092
NA
NA
Positive household member
1.18 (0.75 to 1.85)
0.468


Multivariate logistic regression for independent risk factors



Living in San José
2.17 (1.39 to 3.37)
0.001


Not wearing shoes in the field 2.17 (1.1 to 4.05) 0.015

aOR, odds ratios; RR, relative risk; CI, confidence interval. CIs and ORs were calculated for adults only (>18 years of age). NA, not applicable.

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