Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to page options Skip directly to site content

Volume 10, Number 8—August 2004

Dispatch

Swimming and Campylobacter Infections1

Daniela Schönberg-Norio*, Johanna Takkinen*, Marja-Liisa Hänninen*, Marja-Leena Katila†, Suvi-Sirkku Kaukoranta‡, Leena Mattila§, and Hilpi Rautelin*§Comments to Author 
Author affiliations: *University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; †Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland; ‡North Karelia Central Hospital, Joensuu, Finland; §Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland

Main Article

Table 2

Matched univariate analysis of exposure factors for domestically acquired sporadic Campylobacter infection, July–September 2002, Finlanda

Risk factor Patients n = 100 Controls n = 137 Adjusted OR 95% CI 2-tailed p
Increased risk





Tasting or eating undercooked or raw meatb
14/88
3/124
12.00
1.54–93.77
0.0052c
Drinking water from a dug well
31/96
22/137
3.19
1.58–6.45
0.0017
Swimming in natural sources of water
48/100
40/134
2.27
1.24–4.16
0.0089
Eating strawberries
70/89
79/124
2.90
1.21–6.95
0.0287
Reduced risk





Consumption of





Black and red currants
17/73
73/126
0.17
0.07–0.41
< 0.0001
Blueberries
20/73
56/118
0.43
0.21–0.89
0.0115
Carrots
43/83
89/126
0.44
0.24–0.82
0.0039
Yogurt
51/90
83/121
0.35
0.15–0.85
0.0332
Pasteurized milk
55/93
99/131
0.44
0.22–0.85
0.0075
Cooked or fried fish
50/93
98/128
0.35
0.18–0.67
0.0004
Liver (beef)
4/69
15/105
0.18
0.04–0.87
0.0083
Drinking water produced by a large water plant
52/97
88/137
0.52
0.26–1.02
0.0371
Eating at a friend’s house
24/49
44/71
0.35
0.13–0.96
0.0195
Others





Eating





Minced meat (pork)
45/83
70/116
0.54
0.28–1.06
0.0438
Minced meat (beef)
64/90
97/128
0.78
0.42–1.46
0.3459
Drinking





Water from a small water plant
23/97
34/137
0.80
0.37–1.72
0.4528
Water from bedrock well
20/97
17/137
1.96
0.89–4.34
0.1210
Bottled water
15/97
27/137
0.75
0.37–1.51
0.3062
Contact with cat
27/88
40/118
0.87
0.43–1.76
0.5768
Contact with dog
53/93
76/128
1.02
0.55–1.89
0.9385
Contact with farm animals
4/83
9/118
0.36
0.06–2.14
0.1426
Eating outside the home
69/98
100/137
0.78
0.41–1.48
0.3686
Eating chicken prepared from





Nonmarinated pieces
9/71
20/111
0.32
0.10–1.06
0.0274
Marinated pieces
34/81
47/111
0.76
0.38–1.58
0.3613
Nonmarinated strips
11/70
13/114
1.06
0.33–3.46
0.8357
Marinated strips
19/77
40/118
0.61
0.29–1.28
0.1324
Drinking unpasteurized milk 7/80 9/111 1.40 0.45–4.37 0.7768

aOR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval.
bOf 14 exposed patients, 13 specified meat type: 8 (57%) had tasted undercooked poultry, and 5 (36%) had tasted minced meat.
cFisher exact test.

Main Article

1This study was in part presented at the 12th International Workshop on Campylobacter, Helicobacter and Related Organisms, Aarhus, Denmark, September 6–10, 2003.

TOP