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Volume 10, Number 9—September 2004

Dispatch

Leishmaniasis in Refugee and Local Pakistani Populations

Simon Brooker*, Nasir Mohammed†, Khaksar Adil†, Said Agha†, Richard Reithinger*†, Mark Rowland*, Iftikhar Ali†, and Jan Kolaczinski*†Comments to Author 
Author affiliations: *London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom; †HealthNet International, Peshawar, Pakistan

Main Article

Table 1

Unadjusted odds ratios for variables associated with the risk of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis lesion and scara

Variable Lesion [OR (95% CI)] Scar [OR (95% CI)]
Villageb χ2 = 540, df = 66, p < 0.001 χ2 = 786, df = 66, p < 0.001
Refugee camp (compared to local village) 1.540 (1.16–2.06), p = 0.003 0.82 (0.62–1.09), p = 19
Nationality (Afghan compared to Pakistani) 1.050 (0.78–1.38), p = 0.720 0.940 (0.70–1.26), p = 0.680
Years lived in camp/village 1.010 (1.01–1.02), p < 0.001 1.002 (0.99–1.01), p = 0.510
Family member visited Afghanistan in last 12 mo. 1.740 (1.37–2.20), p < 0.001 1.690 (1.35–2.11), p < 0.001
Lesion prevalence in other household members 1.120 (1.11–1.13), p < 0.001 1.040 (1.03–1.06), p < 0.001
Scar prevalence in other household members 1.030 (1.02–1.03), p < 0.001 1.090 (1.08–1.10), p < 0.001
Sex (female compared to male) 1.010 (0.89–1.15), p = 0.770 1.050 (0.95–1.16), p = 0.310
Age group (compared to 0–4 y)
  5–19 y 1.090 (0.87–1.37), p = 0.450 1.750 (1.44–2.13), p < 0.001
  >20 y 0.560 (0.43–0.71), p < 0.001 1.080 (1.07–1.59), p = 0.007
Type of wall (compared to mud)
  Brick 0.940 (0.33–2.68), p = 0.920 0.640 (0.31–1.31), p = 0.220
  Stone 0.530 (0.32–0.88), p = 0.010 0.480 (0.30–0.77), p = 0.002
  Other 2.000 (0.76–5.21), p = 0.150 1.160 (0.59–2.31), p = 0.650
Type of ceiling (compared to cloth)
  Concrete 0.690 (0.26–1.79), p = 0.450 1.090 (0.44–2.71), p = 0.850
  Wood (beam) 1.430 (0.65–3.17), p = 0.370 1.590 (0.73–3.48), p = 0.240
  Wood (thatched) 0.460 (0.16–1.27), p = 0.140 1.770 (0.70–4.49), p = 0.230
  Other 0.850 (0.30–2.41), p = 0.760 1.180 (0.47–2.99), p = 0.710
Rooms/person 0.200 (0.07–0.56), p = 0.002 0.430 (0.21–0.91), p = 0.020
Cows in compound (yes/no) 1.420 (1.22–1.65), p < 0.001 1.510 (1.34–1.69), p < 0.001
Dogs (yes/no) 1.660 (1.42–1.94), p < 0.001 1.310 (1.16–1.48), p < 0.001
Meshed windows (% windows covered) 1.260 (0.51–3.13), p = 0.610 0.720 (0.32–1.61), p = 0.420
Use mosquito net 1.180 (0.83–1.67), p = 0.350 1.560 (1.19–2.05), p = 0.001
Treated mosquito net 0.760 (0.32–1.78), p = 0.530 0.740 (0.42–1.32), p = 0.320

aOR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval; df, degrees of freedom.
bThe overall significance of this categorical variable is shown rather than the 67 different survey locations.

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