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Volume 11, Number 1—January 2005

Research

Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii

Aharon Abbo*, Shiri Navon-Venezia*, Orly Hammer-Muntz*, Tami Krichali*, Yardena Siegman-Igra*, and Yehuda Carmeli*Comments to Author 
Author affiliations: *Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel

Main Article

Table 2

Group comparison: patients’ characterization and possible risk factors for Acinetobacter baumannii isolation*†

Cases, n (%) Controls, n (%) OR 95% CI p value
Demographic parameters
Average age, y (SD) 67.7 (16.42) 64.4 (19.15) 1.012 0.996–1.03 0.134
Female 47 (40) 59 (50)
Male 71 (60) 59 (50) 1.48 0.89–2.45 0.13
Smoking 35 (30) 43 (36) 0.72 0.41–1.27 0.26
Alcohol usage 7 (6) 5 (4) 1.5 0.42–5.31 0.53
Admission from home 23 (20) 12 (10) 2.12 0.96–4.76 0.065
Concomitant diseases
Ischemic heart disease 82 (69) 61 (52) 2.33 1.27–4.27 0.006
Lung disease 59 (50) 50 (42) 1.578 0.82–2.72 0.183
Diabetes 39 (33) 28 (24) 1.578 0.88-2.8 0.119
Liver disease 10 (8) 18 (15) 0.555 0.25–1.2 0.136
Kidney disease 35 (30) 27 (23) 1.388 0.76–2.54 0.288
Posttransplantation 7 (6) 3 (3) 2.333 0.6–9.02 0.22
Malignancy 35 (30) 38 (32) 0.923 0.53–1.6 0.777
Clinical parameters
Unconsciousness 40 (43) 26 (22) 0.706 0.48–1.02 0.069
Bedridden 88 (75) 79 (76) 1.45 0.82–2.56 0.201
In-house dialysis 11 (9) 4 (3) 2.5 0.78–7.97 0.121
Mechanical ventilation 70 (59) 47 (40) 2.916 1.51–5.61 0.001
Admission in last 3 months 56 (47) 52 (44) 1.148 0.68–1.92 0.6
ICU stay 34 (92) 35 (30) 0.984 0.94–1.02 0.473
Immunosuppression treatment 29 (25) 27 (32) 1.095 0.9–1.97 0.763
Major surgery 33 (28) 33 (28) 1 0.51–1.95 1
Isolation of susceptible Acinetobacter before inclusion 6 (5) 6 (5) 1 1
Antimicrobial treatment
Home antimicrobial treatment 16 (41) 6 (5) 2.666 1.04–6.81 0.04
In-house antimicrobial treatment 104 (88) 96 (81) 1.727 0.82–3.63 0.149
Average number of antimicrobial agents (SD) 3.025 (2) 2.97 (2) 1.015 1 0.847
Penicillin administration‡ 42 (63) 54 (46) 0.647 0.37–1.1 0.112
Cephalosporin use (1st, 2nd generation) 31 (26) 34 (92) 0.9 0.476–1.701 0.746
3rd generation cephalosporin use 53 (54) 42 (63) 1.631 0.92–2.88 0.093
4th-generation cephalosporin use 17 (41) 17 (14) 1 0.49–2.04 1
Macrolides 21 (18) 11 (9) 2.25 0.97–5.17 0.056
Metronidazole 48 (14) 35 (30) 1.933 1.03–3.6 0.038
Gentamicin 23 (19) 27 (32) 0.777 0.38–1.56 0.481
Amikacin 12 (10) 19 (16) 0.5 0.2–1.24 0.134
Clindamycin 7 (6) 8 (7) 0.875 0.32–2.41 0.796
Vancomycin 22 (19) 22 (19) 0.944 0.48–1.83 0.866
Carbapenem 10 (8.47) 10 (8.47) 0.875 0.32–2.41 0.796
Invasive procedures
Central line 69 (58) 70 (59) 0.958 0.54–1.7 0.884
Arterial line 35 (30) 34 (29) 0.933 0.45–1.93 0.85
Foley catheter 96 (81) 76 (64) 2.42 1.3–4.52 0.005
Other bedside procedures§ 63 (53) 78 (67) 0.531 0.29–0.95 0.035

*OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval; SD, standard deviation; ICU, intensive care unit.
†All variables were recorded up to the time of inclusion in the study.
‡Including semisynthetic penicillin and β-lactamase‑containing products.
§Including tracheostomy, bedside débridement, chest tube insertion, and gastrointestinal endoscopy.

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