Figure. A) Schematic representation of the genome of Nipah virus (NV). Negative-sense genomic RNA is shown in 3´ to 5´ orientation. Open reading frames (ORFs) are indicated by shaded boxes: N, nucleoprotein; P, phosphoprotein; M, matrix protein; F, fusion protein; G, attachment protein; L, polymerase protein. B) Phylogenetic analysis of the N ORFs from members of the subfamily Paramyxovirinae. Arrows identify the 5 genera. A phenogram of the N ORFs of members of this subfamily was created by using maximum parsimony analysis with PAUP 4.02 (Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA, USA). Abbreviations and accession numbers: HPIV-1, human parainfluenza virus, D01070; Sendai, X00087; HPIV-3, D10025; CDV, canine distemper virus, AF014953; PDV, phocine distemper virus, X75717; RPV, Rinderpest virus, X68311; MV, K01711; DMV, dolphin Morbillivirus, X75961; NDV, Newcastle disease virus, AF064091; GP, goose paramyxovirus, AF473851; HPIV-4b, M32983; HPIV-4a, M32982; Tioman, AF298895; Menangle, AF326114; HPIV-2, M55320; Simian virus 5 (SV5), M81442; Mumps, D86172; NV-UMCC1, AY029767; NV-Malaysia, AF212302; NV-P. hypomelanus,* AF376747; NV-Bangladesh; Hendra virus, AF017149; Tupaia paramyxovirus, AF079780; Mossman virus, AY286409; and Salem virus, AF237881. C) The phylogenetic relationship between the N gene sequences of the 4 human NV isolates from the Bangladesh outbreak in 2004 and the N gene sequences from pig and human NV isolates from Malaysia. Accession numbers for the pig isolates of NV (13) are AJ627196, AJ564622, and AJ564621. *NV-P. hypomelanus is sequence from a virus isolated from Pteropus hypomelanus, the Island Flying Fox (8).