Mallards and Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Ancestral Viruses, Northern Europe
Vincent J. Munster*, Anders Wallensten†‡, Chantal Baas*, Guus F. Rimmelzwaan*, Martin Schutten*, Björn Olsen§¶, Albert D.M.E. Osterhaus*, and Ron A.M. Fouchier*
Author affiliations: *Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; †Smedby Health Center, Kalmar, Sweden; ‡Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; §Umea University, Umea, Sweden; ¶Kalmar University, Kalmar, Sweden
Figure 2. Phylogenetic trees of hemagglutinin H7 sequences. A) Phylogenetic tree based on the amino acid sequence distance matrix for the HA1 open reading frames of all H7 sequences available from public databases. The scale bar represents ≈10% of amino acid changes between close relatives. *Represents the locations of the Mallard influenza A virus isolates. B) DNA maximum likelihood tree for the European highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses and the low pathogenic avian influenza H7 influenza A viruses isolated from migrating Mallards by using A/FPV/Dutch/27 as outgroup. The scale bar represents 10% of nucleotide changes between close relatives.
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