Mallards and Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Ancestral Viruses, Northern Europe
Vincent J. Munster*, Anders Wallensten†‡, Chantal Baas*, Guus F. Rimmelzwaan*, Martin Schutten*, Björn Olsen§¶, Albert D.M.E. Osterhaus*, and Ron A.M. Fouchier*
Author affiliations: *Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; †Smedby Health Center, Kalmar, Sweden; ‡Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; §Umea University, Umea, Sweden; ¶Kalmar University, Kalmar, Sweden
Figure 3. Phylogenetic trees of H5 sequences. A) Phylogenetic tree based on the amino acid sequence distance matrix, representing all H5 amino acid sequences available from public databases. The scale bar represents ≈10% of amino acid changes between close relatives. *Represent location of the H5 influenza A viruses isolated from Mallards. B) DNA maximum likelihood tree for the cluster of European H5 influenza A viruses and the low pathogenic avian influenza H5 influenza A viruses isolated from migrating Mallards by using A/Chicken/Scotland/59 as outgroup. The scale bar represents ≈1% of nucleotide changes between close relatives.
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