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Volume 11, Number 10—October 2005

Perspective

Emerging Foodborne Trematodiasis

Jennifer Keiser*Comments to Author  and Jürg Utzinger*
Author affiliations: *Swiss Tropical Institute, Basel, Switzerland

Main Article

Table 2

Studies comparing the prevalence of foodborne trematode infections in villages close to water bodies with distant villages*

Study site, period (reference) Population sample Characteristics of water body Prevalence RR (95% CI)
Asillo irrigation area, Peru, 1999 (26) 338 school children 500-hectare irrigation area with irrigation canals and drainage channels Fasciola hepatica: 18.8%, 20.3%, 31.3% in 3 schools in irrigation scheme NA
Kimhae county, Republic of Korea, 1974 (27) 1,809 River region Clonorchis sinensis: 72.1% near riverside and 41.3% inland 1.74 (1.57–1.92)
Goyang county, Republic of Korea, 1974 (27) 578 River region C. sinensis: 32.7% near riverside and 6.3% inland 5.16 (3.04–8.75)
Hadong Gun, Republic of Korea, 1978 (28) 1,163 Rivers and streams Metagonimus yokogawai: 5.4%–90.8% in villages close to river and streams and 4% in village 4 km from river 7.44 (2.83–19.54)
Pohang industrial belt, Republic of Korea, 1989 (29) 3,180 employees; 200 for questionnaire analysis Hyungsai River basin C. sinensis: 52% of infected employees lived near river compared with 27.9% of uninfected employees 1.85 (1.28–2.67)
Okcheon-gun, Republic of Korea, 2000 (30) 1,081 Geum-Gang River C. sinensis: 14.2% of inhabitants near river were infected with C. sinensis compared with 3.2% of inland residents 4.51 (2.64–7.70)
Metagonimus spp.: 8.4% of inhabitants near river were infected, compared with 1.7% of inland residents 5.01 (2.40–10.46)
Nong Wai irrigation area, Khon Kaen, Thailand, 1974–1975 (31) 627 children Irrigation canal and channels Opisthorchia viverrini: 7.3% in irrigated villages and 3.3% in nonirrigated villages 2.20 (0.87–5.51)
Nam Pong development project, Khon Kaen province, Thailand, 1977–1978 (21) 3,183 Reservoir and irrigation scheme O. viverrini: 27.1% in irrigated villages and 17.2% in traditional villages (no irrigation) 1.63 (1.34–2.00)
O. viverrini: 10.8% lakeside and 11.5% in resettlement areas 0.93 (0.66–1.31)
Chonnabot village, Khon Kaen province, Thailand, 1980–1982 (32) 4,638; 246 included for incidence calculation Wide shallow reservoirs that remained dry in 1981–1982 O. viverrini: 47% in uninfected individuals becoming positive within 1 year while reservoirs were flooded and 20% during period when reservoirs were dry† 2.17 (1.42–3.29)
18 villages in Nong Khai and Loei provinces, Thailand, 1981–1982 (33) 1,259 Khong River and Huang River (flowing water) O. viverrini: 51.7% and 52.6% in villages >5 km from river and 27.9% and 21.7% in villages closer to river 0.47 (0.40–0.56)
12 provinces of Vietnam, 1994–2000 (34) >20,000 Red River delta region C. sinensis: £31% in coastal delta region, 5% in mountainous area, and 16.3% in highlands.
O. viverrini: highest in urban coastal areas NA
Mantaro valley, Peru, 2000 (35) 206 children Small streams Odds ratio 17.22
All studies 2.15 (1.38–3.36)

*RR, relative risk; CI confidence interval; NA, not available.
†Incidence values.

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