Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to page options Skip directly to site content

Volume 11, Number 2—February 2005

Research

Sporadic Cryptosporidiosis Decline after Membrane Filtration of Public Water Supplies, England, 1996–2002

Stella Goh*, Mark Reacher†Comments to Author , David P. Casemore‡, Neville Q. Verlander§, André Charlett§, Rachel M. Chalmers¶, Margaret Knowles#, Anthony Pennington*, Joy Williams*, Keith Osborn**, and Sarah Richards††
Author affiliations: *Carlisle and District Primary Care Trust, Carlisle, United Kingdom; †Health Protection Agency, Cambridge, United Kingdom; ‡University of Wales, Aberystwyth, Ceredigion, Wales, United Kingdom; §Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections, Colindale, London, United Kingdom; ¶Singleton Hospital, Swansea, Wales, United Kingdom; #Cumberland Infirmary, Carlisle, United Kingdom; **United Utilities, Great Sankey, Warrington, United Kingdom; ††West Cumberland Hospital, Whitehaven, United Kingdom

Main Article

Table 3

Final multivariable model of risk factors for sporadic cryptosporidiosis, Allerdale and Copeland residents, March 1, 1996, to August 31, 2002

Risk factors Case-patients Controls Adjusted odds ratio* Lower 95% CI† Upper 95% CI p value
Sex
Female 85 265 1 0.45 1.184 0.202
Male 90 272 0.73
Age
<1–5 96 300 1.002/y 0.938 1.021 0.872
6–15 54 157
16+ 25 70
Water sources and water supply zones 0.556
Crummock Lake
Crummock North 39 111 1
Crummock South 23 62 1.262 0.547 2.913
Ennerdale Lake
Ennerdale North 32 107 1.25 0.594 2.63
Ennerdale South 14 46 0.556 0.164 1.881
Other sources
Millom 22 64 1.502 0.686 3.288
Quarry Hill 22 58 0.703 0.273 1.81
Hausegill 3 5 1.356 0.22 8.34
Ayknott 2 7 1.016 0.1 10.29
Underscar 3 9 0.983 0.1 9.18
Fellside 0 1 0.005 0
Bridgend 0 2 0.004 0
Mixed public supplies 12 55 0.893 0.32 2.494
Private water supplies 3 10 0.1 0.007 1
Usual daily volume of cold unboiled tap water drunk at home 1.543 per pint 1.212 1.965 < 0.001
<1/4 pint 25 122
1/4–1 pint 78 260
>1–2 pints 46 106
>2 pints 22 42
Contact with a cattle farm
Yes 19 29 4.532 1.757 11.69 0.002
No 144 475
Contact with a noncattle farm
Yes 17 24 3.809 1.677 8.651 0.002
No 146 471
Feed pet leftovers
Yes 14 19 3.746 1.214 11.56 0.021
No 161 515
Interval of study 0.585
March 1, 1996–February 29, 2000 153 468 1
March 1, 2000–July 31, 2000 4 16 0.965 0.235 3.958
August 1, 2000–February 20, 2001 6 16 1.115 0.319 3.895
February 21, 2001–January 21, 2002 6 18 0.367 0.078 1.72
January 11, 2002–August 31, 2002 6 19 0.485 0.138 1.701

*Adjusted for accidentally touching animal feces, feeding pets biscuits, feeding pets raw vegetables, contact with anyone outside the household with a history of diarrhea, type of sewage system to the house, consumption of mixed salad, and local authority of residence.
†CI, confidence interval.

Main Article

TOP