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Volume 11, Number 3—March 2005

Research

SARS Risk Perceptions in Healthcare Workers, Japan

Teppei Imai*, Ken Takahashi*Comments to Author , Tsutomu Hoshuyama*, Naoki Hasegawa†, Meng-Kin Lim‡, and David Koh‡
Author affiliations: *University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu, Japan; †Keio University, Tokyo, Japan; ‡National University of Singapore, Singapore

Main Article

Table A1

Knowledge of preventive measures, conception of institutional measures, and perception of risk by job category, sex, age, and type of facility. Download PDF of TA1 (223 KB, 1 page)

Job category
Sex
Age
Type of facility
Total
Physicians
Nurses
Other
Men
Women
< 35 years
>35 years
University
Non-university*
(N = 1,370)
(N = 3,274)
(N = 2,638)
(N = 2,205)
(N = 5,077)
(N = 3,963)
(N = 3,319)
(N = 5,163)
(N = 2,119)
(N = 7,282)
n/N† % n/N % n/N % p value n/N % n/N % p value n/N % n/N % p value n/N % n/N % p value n/N %
Knowledge of preventive measures
1. Area isolation 1,284/1,338 96.0 3,167/3,188 99.3 2,459/2,515 97.8 < 0.001 2,057/2,136 96.3 4,853/4,905 98.9 < 0.001 3,782/3856 98.1 3,128/3,185 98.2 0.724 4,876/4,985 97.8 2,034/2,056 98.9 < 0.001 6,910/7,041 98.1
2. Hand washing 1,279/1,338 95.6 3,196/3,222 99.2 2,510/2,566 97.8 < 0.001 2,064/2,150 96.0 4,921/4,976 98.9 < 0.001 3,826/3899 98.1 3,159/3,227 97.9 0.495 4,936/5,049 97.8 2,049/2,077 98.7 0.015 6,985/7,126 98.0
3. Alcohol rubs 1,149/1,320 87.0 2,980/3,150 94.6 2,364/2,487 95.1 < 0.001 1,900/2,116 89.8 4,593/4,841 94.9 < 0.001 3,566/3827 93.2 2,927/3,130 93.5 0.595 4,590/4,923 93.2 1,903/2,034 93.6 0.673 6,493/6,957 93.3
4. Prominent notices 1,154/1,330 86.8 2,911/3,191 91.2 2,245/2,496 89.9 < 0.001 1,829/2,124 86.1 4,481/4,893 91.6 < 0.001 3,465/3862 89.7 2,845/3,155 90.2 0.550 4,443/4,965 89.5 1,867/2,052 91 0.061 6,310/7,017 89.9
5. N95 mask 1,103/1,280 86.2 2,783/3,109 89.5 1,884/2,247 83.8 < 0.001 1,719/2,007 85.7 4,051/4,629 87.5 0.039 3,209/3712 86.4 2,561/2,924 87.6 0.175 3,999/4,670 85.6 1,771/1,966 90.1 < 0.001 5,770/6,636 86.9
6. Gloves 977/1,325 73.7 2,608/3,159 82.6 1,884/2,410 78.2 < 0.001 1,554/2,077 74.8 3,915/4,817 81.3 < 0.001 2,980/3820 78.0 2,489/3,074 81.0 0.003 3,763/4,871 77.3 1,706/2,023 84.3 < 0.001 5,469/6,894 79.3
7. Gowns 836/1,317 63.5 2,327/3,124 74.5 1,360/2,313 58.8 < 0.001 1,266/2,043 62.0 3,257/4,711 69.1 < 0.001 2,485/3778 65.8 2,038/2,976 68.5 0.019 3,041/4,761 63.9 1,482/1,993 74.4 < 0.001 4,523/6,754 67.0
8. Surgical mask 837/1,297 64.5 1,908/3,055 62.5 1,505/2,266 66.4 0.011 1,272/2,000 63.6 2,978/4,618 64.5 0.503 2,420/3749 64.6 1,830/2,869 63.8 0.535 2,996/4,693 63.8 1,254/1,925 65.1 0.323 4,250/6,618 64.2
9. Temperature checks 676/1,320 51.2 1,918/3,119 61.5 1,612/2,464 65.4 < 0.001 1,222/2,104 58.1 2,984/4,799 62.2 0.001 2,344/3803 61.6 1,862/3,100 60.1 0.189 2,966/4,900 60.5 1,240/2,003 61.9 0.289 4,206/6,903 60.9
10. Hair cover 726/1,318 55.1 1,982/3,103 63.9 1,315/2,323 56.6 < 0.001 1,155/2,053 56.3 2,868/4,691 61.1 < 0.001 2,141/3760 56.9 1,882/2,984 63.1 < 0.001 2,668/4,760 56.1 1,355/1,984 68.3 < 0.001 4,023/6,744 59.7
11. Paper mask 834/1,297 64.3 1,904/3,057 62.3 1,173/2,273 51.6 < 0.001 1,230/2,001 61.5 2,681/4,626 58.0 0.008 2,147/3771 56.9 1,764/2,856 61.8 < 0.001 2,793/4,696 59.5 1,118/1,931 57.9 0.237 3,911/6,627 59.0
12. Goggles 753/1,304 57.7 1,724/3,062 56.3 1,254/2,268 55.3 0.361 1,145/2,019 56.7 2,586/4,615 56.0 0.628 1,925/3706 51.9 1,806/2,928 61.7 < 0.001 2,476/4,679 52.9 1,255/1,955 64.2 < 0.001 3,731/6,634 56.2
13. Gauze mask 761/1,301 58.5 1,794/3,064 58.6 1,079/2,309 46.7 < 0.001 1,104/2,028 54.4 2,530/4,646 54.5 1.000 1,952/3787 51.5 1,682/2,887 58.3 < 0.001 2,567/4,726 54.3 1,067/1,948 54.8 0.746 3,634/6,674 54.5
14. Shoe cover 665/1,313 50.6 1,690/3,043 55.5 1,188/2,291 51.9 0.003 1,034/2,038 50.7 2,509/4,609 54.4 0.006 1,883/3711 50.7 1,660/2,936 56.5 < 0.001 2,317/4,690 49.4 1,226/1,957 62.6 < 0.001 3,543/6,647 53.3
15. Limiting visitors 398/1,333 29.9 1,274/3,086 41.3 727/2,383 30.5 < 0.001 663/2,101 31.6 1,736/4,701 36.9 < 0.001 1,268/3793 33.4 1,131/3,009 37.6 < 0.001 1,568/4,817 32.6 831/1,985 41.9 < 0.001 2,399/6,802 35.3
Knowledge (K-) score: sum of 15 items
11–15 (high) 684/1370 49.9 1876/3274 57.3 1150/2638 43.6 < 0.001 1,052/2,205 47.7 2,658/5,077 52.4 < 0.001 1,991/3,963 50.2 1,719/3,319 51.8 < 0.001 2,453/5163 47.5 1,257/2,119 59.3 < 0.001 3,710/7,282 50.9
6–10 (middle) 535/1370 39.1 1195/3274 36.5 1127/2638 42.7 876/2,205 39.7 1,981/5,077 39.0 1,647/3,963 41.6 1,210/3,319 36.5 2,157/5163 41.8 700/2,119 33.0 2,857/7,282 39.2
0–5 (low) 151/1370 11.0 203/3274 6.2 361/2638 13.7 277/2,205 12.6 438/5,077 8.6 325/3,963 8.2 390/3,319 11.8 553/5163 10.7 162/2,119 7.6 715/7,282 9.8
(mean ± SD) (9.80 ± 3.30) (10.44 ± 2.88) (9.31 ± 3.32) < 0.001 (9.62 ± 3.36) (10.03 ± 3.07) < 0.001 (9.94 ± 2.98) (9.87 ± 3.37) 0.358 (9.68 ± 3.18) (10.46 ± 3.07) < 0.001 (9.91 ± 3.17)
Concept of institutional measures
1. Clear policies and protocols 811/1292 62.8 2069/2930 70.6 1276/2148 59.4 < 0.001 1,261/2,013 62.6 2,895/4,357 66.4 0.003 2,171/3,524 61.6 1,985/2,846 69.7 < 0.001 2,829/4507 62.8 1,327/1,863 71.2 < 0.001 4,156/6,370 65.2
2. Specialist available 555/1302 42.6 1750/2934 59.6 1108/2200 50.4 < 0.001 912/2,007 45.4 2,501/4,429 56.5 < 0.001 1,749/3,582 48.8 1,664/2,854 58.3 < 0.001 2,232/4556 49.0 1,181/1,880 62.8 < 0.001 3,413/6,436 53.0
3. Adequate training 379/1288 29.4 1386/2836 48.9 691/2165 31.9 < 0.001 629/1,982 31.7 1,827/4,307 42.4 < 0.001 1,233/3,499 35.2 1,223/2,790 43.8 < 0.001 1,590/4449 35.7 866/1,840 47.1 < 0.001 2,456/6,289 39.1
4. Effectiveness 357/1314 27.2 1045/3076 34.0 715/2424 29.5 < 0.001 637/2,084 30.6 1,480/4,730 31.7 0.570 1,054/3,746 28.1 1,063/3,068 34.6 < 0.001 1,369/4822 28.4 748/1,992 37.6 < 0.001 2,117/6,814 31.1
Institutional (I-) score: sum of above measures 1–3.
3 211/1370 15.4 822/3274 25.1 362/2638 13.7 < 0.001 357/2,205 16.2 1,038/5,077 20.4 < 0.001 638/3,963 16.1 757/3,319 22.8 < 0.001 819/5163 15.9 576/2,119 27.2 < 0.001 1,395/7,282 19.2
2 249/1370 18.2 746/3274 22.8 458/2638 17.4 393/2,205 17.8 1,060/5,077 20.9 787/3,963 19.9 666/3,319 20.1 1,024/5163 19.8 429/2,119 20.2 1,453/7,282 20.0
1 374/1370 27.3 818/3274 25.0 722/2638 27.4 597/2,205 27.1 1,317/5,077 25.9 1,100/3,963 27.8 814/3,319 24.5 1,402/5163 27.2 512/2,119 24.2 1,914/7,282 26.3
0 536/1370 39.1 888/3274 27.1 1096/2638 34.6 858/2,205 38.9 1,662/5,077 32.7 1,438/3,963 36.3 1,082/3,319 32.6 1,918/5163 36.3 602/2,119 28.4 2,520/7,282 34.6
(mean ± SD) (1.10 ± 1.09) (1.46 ± 1.14) (1.03 ± 1.07) < 0.001 (1.11 ± 1.10) (1.29 ± 1.13) < 0.001 (1.16 ± 1.09) (1.33 ± 1.15) < 0.001 (1.14 ± 1.09) (1.46 ± 1.17) < 0.001 (1.24 ± 1.12)
Perception of risk
1. Avoidance of patient 1149/1322 86.9 2982/3193 93.4 2327/2526 92.1 < 0.001 1,855/2,126 87.3 4,603/4,915 93.7 < 0.001 3,586/3,850 93.1 2,872/3,191 90.0 < 0.001 4,539/4984 91.1 1,919/2,057 93.3 0.002 6,458/7,041 91.7
2. Acceptance of risk 929/1337 69.5 2077/3209 64.7 1536/2522 60.9 < 0.001 1,431/2,136 67.0 3,111/4,932 63.1 0.002 2,414/3,873 62.3 2,128/3,195 66.6 < 0.001 3,207/5008 64.0 1,335/2,060 64.8 0.548 4,542/7,068 64.3
3. Little personal control 787/1317 59.8 1941/3146 61.7 1492/2495 59.8 0.267 1,246/2,106 59.2 2,974/4,852 61.3 0.098 2,304/3,802 60.6 1,916/3,156 60.7 0.941 2,980/4927 60.5 1,240/2,031 61.1 0.666 4,220/6,958 60.6
4. Fear 658/1345 48.9 1966/3245 60.6 1348/2588 52.1 < 0.001 1,054/2,165 48.7 2,918/5,013 58.2 < 0.001 2,191/3,924 55.8 1,781/3,254 54.7 0.352 2,654/5082 52.2 1,318/2,096 62.9 < 0.001 3,972/7,178 55.3
5. Job change 191/1336 14.3 1069/3132 34.1 608/2460 24.7 < 0.001 334/2,121 15.7 1,534/4,807 31.9 < 0.001 1,164/3,793 30.7 704/3,135 22.5 < 0.001 1,184/4906 24.1 684/2,022 33.8 < 0.001 1,688/6,928 27.0

*Nonuniversity includes municipal hospitals (2 facilities) and private hospitals (one facility).
†n/N, number of respondents positively answering to questions about knowledge of preventive measures, concept of institutional measures, and perception of risk per number of respondents answering question (except for knowledge of paper mask and gauze mask, where negative answers were counted). Positive answer includes "probably agree," "agree," and "strongly agree", and negative answer includes "probably disagree," "disagree," and "strongly disagree." p value based on chi-square test for difference in proportion, t test for difference in 2 means, and ANOVA for differences in 3 means.

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