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Volume 11, Number 5—May 2005

Research

Risk Factors for Kala-Azar in Bangladesh

Caryn Bern*Comments to Author , Allen W. Hightower*, Rajib Chowdhury†, Mustakim Ali†, Josef Amann*, Yukiko Wagatsuma†, Rashidul Haque†, Katie Kurkjian*, Louise E. Vaz*, Moarrita Begum†, Tangin Akter†, Catherine B. Cetre-Sossah*, Indu B. Ahluwalia*, Ellen Dotson*, W. Evan Secor*, Robert F. Breiman*†, and James H. Maguire*
Author affiliations: *Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; †International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh

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Table 2

Individual-level factors associated with kala-azar (KA) in univariate analyses adjusted for household clustering, Bangladesh, 2000–2003

Factor N* Cumulative KA incidence, n (%) OR (95% CI)† p value
Age (y)
<3 216 4 (1.9) 0.78 (0.22–2.78) 0.71
3–14 821 71 (8.7) 3.99 (1.77–8.99) 0.0008
15–45 1,002 74 (7.4) 3.28 (1.48–7.27) 0.0034
>45 250 6 (3.9) Referent
Female 1,196 74 (6.2) 0.84 (0.62–1.15) 0.29
Male 1,102 81 (7.4) Referent
Sleeps on ground 150 9 (6.0) 0.99 (0.51–1.90) 0.97
Sleeps on bed or cot 1,849 123 (6.7) Referent
Always uses net in summer 1,769 96 (5.4) 0.43 (0.29–0.64) <0.0001
Uses net sometimes or never in summer 370 46 (12.4) Referent
Always uses net in winter 754 30 (4.0) 0.49 (0.33–0.73) 0.0004
Uses net sometimes or never in winter 1,385 112 (8.1) Referent
Always uses net in rainy season 1,277 76 (6.0) 0.79 (0.54–1.17) 0.24
Uses net sometimes or never in rainy season 862 66 (7.7) Referent
Uses bed net ever 1,849 109 (5.9) 0.51 (0.32–0.80) 0.0033
Never uses bed net 290 33 (11.4) Referent
Distance from previous KA patient
Same house 468 72 (15.4) 35.7 (21.1–60.2) <0.0001
<50 m 1,178 67 (5.7) 3.51 (1.89–6.51) <0.0001
>50 m 652 16 (2.5) Referent
Eats beef at least twice a month 711 49 (6.9) 1.1 (0.76–1.59) 0.62
Eats beef less than once a month 1,299 83 (6.4) Referent
Eats goat at least twice a month 206 9 (4.4) 0.59 (0.24, 1.43) 0.24
Eats goat less than once a month 1,804 123 (6.8) Referent
Eats fish daily 1,402 96 (6.9) 1.25 (0.80–1.94) 0.33
Eats fish less than daily 610 36 (5.9) Referent
Eats chicken at least twice a month 437 34 (7.8) 1.34 (0.86–2.11) 0.2
Eats chicken less than once a month 1,567 98 (6.3) Referent
Goats kept in sleeping room 248 14 (5.7) 0.87 (0.48–1.57) 0.64
No goats in sleeping room 1,705 108 (6.3) Referent
Chickens kept in sleeping room 1,269 80 (6.3) 1.04 (0.68–1.60) 0.85
No chickens in sleeping room 681 42 (6.2) Referent

*Existing values for each variable.
†OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval.

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