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Volume 11, Number 5—May 2005

Research

Risk Factors for Kala-Azar in Bangladesh

Caryn Bern*Comments to Author , Allen W. Hightower*, Rajib Chowdhury†, Mustakim Ali†, Josef Amann*, Yukiko Wagatsuma†, Rashidul Haque†, Katie Kurkjian*, Louise E. Vaz*, Moarrita Begum†, Tangin Akter†, Catherine B. Cetre-Sossah*, Indu B. Ahluwalia*, Ellen Dotson*, W. Evan Secor*, Robert F. Breiman*†, and James H. Maguire*
Author affiliations: *Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; †International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh

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Table 3

Household-level factors associated with kala-azar (KA) in univariate analyses adjusted for household clustering, Bangladesh, 2000–2003

Household characteristic N* Cumulative KA incidence, n (%) OR (95% CI)† p value
Farmer or farm laborer 1,459 99 (6.8) 0.99 (0.78–1.27) 0.97
Other occupation 753 49 (6.5) Referent
Monthly income ≥$10 per person 1,096 67 (6.1) 0.82 (0.55–1.22) 0.33
Monthly income <$10 per person 1,112 81 (7.3) Referent
Owns ≥0.2 acres of land 1,186 80 (6.8) 1.06 (0.72–1.58) 0.76
Owns <0.2 acres of land 1,026 68 (6.6) Referent
Owns a bed net 2,012 125 (6.2) 0.58 (0.35–0.96) 0.033
Does not own a bed net 198 21 (10.6) Referent
≤3 household members per net 924 41 (4.4) 0.53 (0.35–0.79) 0.0023
>3 household members per net 1,374 114 (8.3) Referent
Owns bicycle 186 10 (5.4) 0.71 (0.36–1.42) 0.33
Does not own a bicycle 2,026 138 (6.8) Referent
Owns radio 497 24 (4.8) 0.65 (0.39–1.08) 0.1
Does not own a radio 1,715 124 (7.2) Referent
Head of household can read 652 48 (7.4) 1.2 (0.78–1.83) 0.41
Head of household cannot read 1,560 100 (6.4) Referent
Keeps cattle 1,050 67(6.4) 0.89 (0.75–1.06) 0.18
Keeps no cattle 912 63 (6.9) Referent
Roof made of tin 1,441 93 (6.5) 1.12 (0.70–1.79) 0.64
Roof made of thatch or mixed 511 32 (6.3) Referent
Earthen walls 1,689 113 (6.7) 1.81 (0.77–4.21) 0.17
Bamboo, tin, or concrete walls 269 12 (4.5) Referent
Damp floor 1,607 103 (6.4) 1.17 (0.59–2.31) 0.65
Dry floor 346 19 (5.5) Referent

*Existing values for each variable.
†OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval.

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