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Volume 11, Number 6—June 2005

Research

International Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 Infections, 1992–2001

Morten Helms*Comments to Author , Steen Ethelberg*, Kåre Mølbak*, and the DT104 study group
Author affiliations: *Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark

Main Article

Table 2

Number (regional level) and proportion (%) of multidrug resistance and definitive phage type 104 (DT104) in Salmonella Typhimurium in 29 countries participating in the international DT104 survey*

Subregion/country % MDR, % DT104 (% DT104 that are MDR)
1992–1993 1994–1995 1996–1997 1998–1999 2000–2001
Northern Europe† 479; 2,802; 2,143† 910; 7,590; 6,629 1,190; 8,345; 7,520 1,729; 4,698; 2,969 1,380; 3,270; 824
England + Wales NA, 22.6 (75.5) NA, 54.5 (87.0) NA, 67.5 (94.0) NA, 57.1 (92.0) NA, 42.3 (NA)
Ireland 40.3, 38.9 (82.5) 66.8, 61.2 (90.9) 76.1, 70.0 (92.6) 70.7, 65.4 (92.3) 63.3, 45.2 (90.6)
Scotland 75.0, 63.1 (73.6) 79.7, 56.3 (89.8)
Denmark 1.5, 1.5 (69.2) 5.0, 3.0 (80.8) 21.9, 15.8 (93.5) 23.1, 12.7 (91.5)
Finland NA, 4.7 (61.0) NA, 10.5 (83.3) NA, 11.5 (78.0) NA, 11.4 (87.2) 34.8, 27.9 (95.5)
Latvia 79.7, NA (NA) 63.2, NA (NA)
Norway 24.5, NA (NA) 22.0, 12.6 (100.0) 32.0, 24.0 (95.5)
Sweden NA, 25.3 (NA) NA, 22.3 (NA) NA, 23.7 (NA)
Western Europe† 2,807; 885; 609† 5,242; 1,944; 1,519 8,407; 6,346; 5,308 7,782; 5,347; 4,539 10,048; 7,626; 6,377
Austria NA, 17.0 (NA) NA, 14.6 (NA) 13.7, 32.7 (70.6) 13.1, 28.9 (67.5) 35.8, 29.6 (82.1)
Belgium 39.6, 27.0 (79.9)
Germany 14.3, 3.1 (89.3) 30.2, 9.2 (91.7) 44.3, 32.1 (87.1) 49.0, 32.1 (86.2) 57.1, 44.0 (84.7)
Luxembourg 11.0, NA (NA) 26.9, NA (NA) 43.2, NA (NA) 55.0, NA (NA) 58.1, NA (NA)
Netherlands 10.3, 6.7 (81.5) 8.9, 15.3 (43.1) 26.3, 23.5 (78.1) 29.5, 29.6 (79.8) 33.9, 37.2 (80.8)
Switzerland 48.8, 28.5 (100.0)
Eastern Europe† NA; 1,034; NA 117; 2,020; 117 778; 1,902; 732 889; 1,182; 764
Czech Republic 5.8, 57.3 (10.1) 11.7, 43.9 (26.1) 28.5, 47.1 (54.6)
Hungary NA, 48.9 (NA) NA, 60.4 (NA) 33.0, 62.2 (84.0) 54.1, 57.7 (77.3)
Southern Europe† 121; 612; NA† 166; 1,206; NA 1,126; 3,070; 222 112; 1,771; NA 1,360; 1,296; 674
Greece 18.1, NA (NA) 61.6, NA (NA) 44.8, NA (NA) 39.2, NA (NA) 26.3, NA (NA)
Malta 83.6, NA (NA) 22.5, NA (NA) 20.0, NA (NA) 57.1, NA (NA) 4.3, NA (NA)
Spain NA, 37.1 (NA) NA, 26.0 (NA) 34.6, 20.2 (80.4) NA, 23.4 (NA) 45.0, 18.3 (65.0)
Israel‡ NA, 59.5 (NA) NA, 89.6 (NA) NA, 67.7 (NA) 85.6, 73.9 (97.7)
North America† NA; 506; NA† 3,507; 755; 237 9,045; 4,209; 3,265 8,315; 4,466; 3,528 6,748; 930; 785
Canada NA, 17.7 (NA) NA, 27.3 (42.5) 16.2, 46.1 (51.8) 44.1, 43.8 (82.3) 47.8, 35.5 (84.4)
USA 19.8, NA (NA) 45.7, 29.1 (92.6) 40.5, 34.0 (77.4) 39.0, NA (NA)
Caribbean region† 0; NA; NA 0; NA; NA 0; NA; NA
Caribbean 0.0, NA (NA) 0.0, NA (NA) 0.0, NA (NA)
South America† 1; NA; NA 7; NA; NA 52; NA; NA 97; NA; NA
Brazil 0.5, NA (NA) 4.0, NA (NA) 13.0, NA (NA) 13.0, NA (NA)
Southern Africa† 74; NA; NA
South Africa 11.2, NA (NA)
Eastern Asia† NA; 32; 32† NA; 43; 43 62; 112; 111 44; 121; 121 37; 68; 68
Japan NA, 2.1 (100.0) NA, 3.1 (100.0) NA, 8.8 (100.0) NA, 13.7 (100.0) NA, 9.8 (100.0)
Republic of Korea 14.3, 22.2 (97.8) 7.8, 3.2 (100.0) 13.7, 2.2 (100.0)
Oceania† 100; 13; 12† 114; 9; 8 80; 4; 4 95; 16; 16 163; 38; 27
Australia 3.8, 0.1 (100.0) 2.7, NA (NA) 1.5, NA (NA) 1.8, 0.2 (100.0) 3.2, 0.7 (68.6)
New Zealand NA, 0.8 (91.7) NA, 0.5 (88.9) NA, 0.3 (100.0) NA, 0.4 (100.0) NA, 0.1 (100.0)

*MDR, multidrug-resistant; NA, data not available. The table also shows the % MDR DT104 of all DT104 strains.
†No. of MDR; no. of DT104; and no. of DT104 that are MDR.
‡According to the United Nations classification, Israel belongs to the western Asian region. In this study, Israel has been grouped with southern European countries.

Main Article

1Data for this survey were contributed by the DT104 study group, which consisted of the following: Diane Lightfoot and J. Powling, Australia; Christian Berghold and Christian Kornshober, Austria; Ingrid Wybo, J.M. Collard, and C. Godard, Belgium; Dalia dos Prazeres Rodrigues, Eliane Moura Falavina dos Reis, and Erica L. Fonseca, Brazil; Kathryn Doré, James Flint, Frank Pollari, Rafiq Ahmed, and Walter Demczuk, Canada; James Hospedales, Denise Clarke, and Michelle Nurse-Lucas, Caribbean Region; Renata Karpiskova, The Czech Republic; Peter Gerner-Smidt, Denmark; Noël Gill, Sarah O'Brien, and John Threlfall, England and Wales; Anja Siitonen and Susanna Lukinmaa, Finland; Wolfgang Rabsch, Germany; Panayotis T. Tassios, Leonidas S. Tzouvelekis, and Takis Panagiotopoulos, Greece; Judit Pàszti and Noelni Nógrády, Hungary; Barbara Foley, Martin Cormican, and Paul McKeown, Ireland; Nahum Andorn and Ruti Yishai, Israel; Haruo Watanabe and Hidemasa Izumiya, Japan; Bok Kwon Lee and Shukho Kim, Republic of Korea; J. Selga and J. Jansone, Latvia; Joel Mossong and François Schneider, Luxembourg; Julie Haider and Paul Cuschieri, Malta; Wilfrid van Pelt, Netherlands; Helen Heffernan and Carolyn Nicol, New Zealand; Karin Nygård and Trine Lise Stavnes, Norway; B.L. Cherkasskiy, Russian Federation; Lynda Browning and John Coia, Scotland; Karen Helena Keddy and Tersia Kruger, Republic of South Africa; Miquel Anger Usera, Spain; Agneta Olsson, Sweden; Patrick Boerlin, Switzerland; Timothy Barrett, Frederick J. Angulo, and Jennifer E. Stevenson, USA.

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