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Volume 11, Number 8—August 2005

Letter

SARS Vaccine Protective in Mice

Konrad Stadler*1, Anjeanette Roberts†1, Stephan Becker‡1, Leatrice Vogel†, Markus Eickmann‡, Larissa Kolesnikova‡, Hans-Dieter Klenk‡, Brian Murphy†, Rino Rappuoli*, Sergio Abrignani*Comments to Author , and Kanta Subbarao†
Author affiliations: *Chiron Vaccines, Siena, Italy; †National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA; ‡Institut für Virologie, Marburg, Germany

Main Article

Table

Immunogenicity and efficacy of β-propiolactone (BPL)–inactivated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) vaccine in mice against subsequent challenge with live SARS-CoV

Immunogen* Neutralization titer†
Virus replication upon challenge‡
Lungs
Nasal turbinates
2 wk post 1st dose 2 wk post 2nd dose 2 wk post 3rd dose No. infected/ no. tested Mean (± SE) virus titer§ No. infected/ no. tested Mean (± SE) virus titer§
PBS <1:8 <1:8 <1:8 4/4 6.3 ± 0.3 3/4 2.8 ± 0.35
MF59 <1:8 <1:8 <1:8 4/4 6.1 ± 0.13 3/4 3.0 ± 0.58
Influenza A (5 μg) <1:8 <1:8 <1:8 4/4 6.3 ± 0.07 3/4 2.9 ± 0.36
Influenza A (5 μg) + MF59 <1:8 <1:8 <1:8 4/4 6.0 ± 0.19 4/4 3.0 ± 0.11
BPL-SARS-CoV (5 μg) <1:8 <1:8 1:64 1/4 2.0 ± 0.0¶# 0/4 ≤1.8 ± 0**††
BPL-SARS-CoV (5 μg) + MF59 <1:8 1:91 1:645 0/4 ≤1.5 ± 0¶** 0/4 ≤1.8 ± 0**††

*The indicated immunogens or control preparations were administered to mice by subcutaneous injection on 3 occasions 2 weeks apart; PBS, phosphate-buffered saline.
†Neutralization titers were determined as described (8).
‡Mice were challenged with 104 50% tissue culture infectious doses (TCID50) SARS-CoV intranasally.
§Virus titers are expressed as log10 TCID50/g of tissue.
¶p<0.00001 in a 2-tailed Student t test, compared to titers seen in mice that were immunized with PBS.
#Indicates the titer of a single animal. The remaining 3 mice had no detectable levels of virus.
**Virus not detected; the lower limit of detection of infectious virus was 1.5 log10 TCID50/g in a 10% wt/vol suspension of lung homogenate and 1.8 log10 TCID50/g in a 5% wt/vol suspension of nasal turbinates.
††p = 0.025 in a 2-tailed Student t test, compared to titers seen in mice that were immunized with PBS.

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1These authors contributed equally to this work.

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