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Volume 11, Number 8—August 2005

Dispatch

Malaria and Irrigated Crops, Accra, Ghana

Eveline Klinkenberg*†, P.J. McCall*, Ian M. Hastings*, Michael D. Wilson‡, Felix P. Amerasinghe§, and Martin J. Donnelly*Comments to Author 
Author affiliations: *Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom; †International Water Management Institute (West Africa), Accra, Ghana; ‡Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, Legon, Ghana; §International Water Management Institute Headquarters, Colombo, Sri Lanka

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Table 1

Summary of variables measured for children with and without malaria parasites, with results of univariate (Pearson chi-square or t) tests*

Variables Plasmodium-positive blood slide (n = 261) Plasmodium-negative blood slide (n = 1,496) p value
Mean Hb, g/dL (SD) 10.17 (1.62) 10.94 (1.42) <0.001
Hb <8 g/dL, % 11.3 (29/257) 3.3 (49/1,481) <0.001
Mean age, months (SD) 36.44 (16.03) 32.92 (17.19) <0.001
Mean socioeconomic score† (SD) 1.42 (0.99) 1.74 (0.98) <0·001
Male (%) 123 (47.1) 739 (49.4) 0.498
Travel to village‡ (%) 17 (6.5) 93 (6.2) 0.855
Taken malaria medication in last 2 wk§ (%) 63 (24.1) 344 (23.0) 0.686
History of fever§ (%) 64 (24.5) 293 (19.6) 0.067
HH with reporting bed net use (%) 89 (34.1) 499 (33.4) 0.814
HH who spray weekly¶ (%) 71 (27.2) 435 (29.1) 0.537
HH with netting at windows/doors (%) 208 (79.7) 1,282 (85.8) 0.012
HH without ceiling (%) 77 (29.8) 382 (25.6) 0.147

*Hb, hemoglobin; HH, household.
†Composite measure of socioeconomic status used was the asset factor score of the World Bank for Ghana (http://www.worldbank.com/hnp).
‡Persons who had traveled to a rural (potentially malarious) area in the previous 3 weeks.
§In the last 48 hours, as reported by the caregiver.
¶Proprietary brands of insecticide aerosols.

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