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Volume 12, Number 1—January 2006
THEME ISSUE
Influenza

Prevention

Vaccines for Pandemic Influenza

Catherine J. Luke* and Kanta Subbarao*Comments to Author 
Author affiliations: *National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA

Main Article

Table 2

Challenges for developing vaccines for pandemic influenza: knowns and unknowns*

What we know from experience with human influenza viruses What we don’t know
Antibodies against the HA (and to a lesser extent NA) are critical for protection.
Systemic immune response is strain specific.
Mucosal immune response provides broader cross-protection.
Cellular immunity is needed for viral clearance.
Vaccine strain must closely match the circulating strain. Which avian influenza virus will cross species barrier to cause a pandemic
Importance of antigenic drift among avian influenza viruses
Immunogenicity of HA of avian viruses in humans (unknown or poor)

*HA, hemagglutinin; NA, neuraminidase.

Main Article

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