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Volume 12, Number 10—October 2006

Research

Health Benefits, Risks, and Cost-Effectiveness of Influenza Vaccination of Children

Lisa A. Prosser*†Comments to Author , Carolyn Buxton Bridges‡, Timothy M. Uyeki‡, Virginia L. Hinrichsen*†, Martin I. Meltzer‡, Noelle-Angelique M. Molinari‡, Benjamin Schwartz‡, William W. Thompson‡, Keiji Fukuda‡, and Tracy A. Lieu*†§
Author affiliations: *Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA; †Harvard Pilgrim Health Care, Boston, Massachusetts, USA; ‡Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; §Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

Main Article

Table A3

Health benefits, risks, and costs of influenza vaccination of varying age and risk groups, means (95% CI)*†‡

Per 1,000 children
Cost of vaccination program§ Savings from influenza disease averted Net costs Influenza events averted (all) Influenza hospitalizations averted Deaths averted Vaccine adverse events incurred (medically attended)¶ QALYs gained (95% CI32)
Healthy Using inactivated influenza vaccine
6–23 mo $79,000 $42,000 37,000 (–119,000 to 98,000) 108 (16–276) 2 (0.2–6) 0.002 (0–0.007) 21 (8–47) 3.0 (0.4–9.0)
2 y $66,000 $23,000 43,000 (–40,000 to 83,000) 107 (15–276) 1.2 (0.1–4.2) 0.001 (0–0.005) 14 (5–30) 2.4 (0.3–7.3)
3–4 y $59,000 $12,000 47,000 (2,000–78,000) 107 (15–276) 0.6 (0; 2.3) 0.0005 (0–0.0025) 10 (3–24) 1.7 (0.2–5.2)
5–11 y $49,000 $5,000 44,000 (21,000–68,000) 55 (8–142) 0.2 (0–0.7) 0.0002 (0–0.0008) 5 (2–11) 0.6 (0.1–1.7)
12–17 y $49,000 $5,000 44,000 (22,000–68,000) 41 (6–104) 0.2 (0–0.6) 0.0002 (0–0.0008) 3 (1–8) 0.4 (0–1.1)
High risk: Using inactivated influenza vaccine
6–23 mo $79,000 $153,000 –74,000) (–552,000 to 83,000) 108 (16–276) 5.5 (0.5–6.5) 0.005 (0–0.020) 32 (11–56) 7.2 (0.8–23.2)
2 y $66,000 $88,000 –22,000) (–292,000 to 72,000) 107 (15–276) 3.5 (0.2–11.4) 0.003 (0–0.013) 25 (7–44) 5.4 (0.6–17.2)
3–4 y $59,000 $57,000 2,000 (–212,000 to 70,000) 107 (15–276) 2.2 (0.1–9.1) 0.002 (0–0.010) 19 (5–37) 4.0 (0.4–13.1)
5–11 y $49,000 $37,000 12,000 (–125,000 to 59,000) 55 (8–142) 1.3 (0.1–3.9) 0.001 (0–0.005) 9 (3–24) 1.6 (0.2–5.6)
12–17 y $49,000 $36,000 13,000 (–120,000 to 59,000) 41 (6; 104) 1.3 (0.1–3.9) 0.001 (0–0.005) 6 (1–15) 1.3 (0.1–4.5)
Healthy Using live attenuated influenza vaccine
6–23 mo $99,000 $63,000 32,000 (–155,000 to 99,000) 132 (20–319) 2.4 (0.3–7.2) 0.002 (0–0.009) 13 (3–32) 3.7 (0.5–10.5)
2 y $80,000 $35,000 42,000 (–59,000 to 85,000) 130 (20–322) 1.4 (0.1–4.9) 0.001 (0; 0.005) 11 (2–26) 2.9 (0.4–8.5)
3–4 y $74,000 $21,000 50,000 (–3,000 to 83,000) 130 (20–322) 0.7 (0–2.7) 0.0006 (0–0.0029) 9 (2–23) 2.1 (0.3–6.1)
5–11 y $61,000 $11,000 48,000 (22,000–73,000) 67 (10–166) 0.3 (0–0.8) 0.0002 (0–0.0010) 4 (1–10) 0.7 (0.1–1.9)
12–17 y $61,000 $10,000 49,000 (23,000–73,000) 50 (8–120) 0.3 (0–0.7) 0.00002 (0–0.0010) 3 (0–7) 0.5 (0.1–1.3)

*CI, confidence interval; QALYS, quality-adjusted life years; italics indicate that live, attenuated influenza vaccine is not licensed for children <5 y.
†Bootstrapped.
‡Figures may not sum due to rounding.
§Includes time costs associated with vaccination.
¶Includes injection site reactions, systemic reactions, anaphylaxis, and Guillain-Barré syndrome.

*CI, confidence interval; QALYS, quality-adjusted life years; italics indicate that live, attenuated influenza vaccine is not licensed for children <5 y.
†Bootstrapped.
‡Figures may not sum due to rounding.
§Includes time costs associated with vaccination.
¶Includes injection site reactions, systemic reactions, anaphylaxis, and Guillain-Barré syndrome.

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