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Volume 12, Number 10—October 2006

Perspective

Birds and Influenza H5N1 Virus Movement to and within North America

John H. Rappole*Comments to Author  and Zdenek Hubálek†
Author affiliations: *Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, USA; †Academy of Sciences, Valtice, Czech Republic

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Table 1

Geographic spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 subtype since 1996

Date Event
1996 1st isolation; domestic geese, southern China (5)
1997–1998 Chickens, Hong Kong; 18 humans (6 deaths) (6)
1999 Geese, Hong Kong (7)
2001 Geese from China in Vietnam (8)
Nov 2002 Hong Kong poultry, other bird species in or near zoologic parks (7)
Feb 2003 Human travelers from Fujian Province (China) (9)
Dec 2003–Nov 2005 Poultry (mainly chickens) and humans: South Korea, Vietnam, Thailand, Hong Kong, Cambodia, Laos, Indonesia, China, and Malaysia (6)
Jan 2004 Wild birds: Hong Kong (10)
Feb 2004 Birds in a zoo collection: Cambodia (10)
Mar 2004 Wild bird: South Korea (10)
Oct 2004 Bird smuggled from Thailand into Belgium (11)
Apr–Jun 2005 Migratory birds: Qinghai Lake and Xinjiang Province, China (12)
Jul–Oct 2005 Poultry and wild waterfowl: Novosibirsk, Altai, Kurgansk, Omsk, and Tyumen regions, Asian Russia (13,14)
Aug 2005 Geese and other poultry: northern Kazakhstan, Tibet (13)
Aug 2005 Migratory waterfowl: northern Mongolia (15)
Aug–Oct 2005 Poultry and pigeons: Ural Territory, Russia (13)
Aug 2005 Wild waterfowl: Kalmykia, European Russia (13)
Oct 2005 Domestic turkeys: Western Asian turkey (13)
Oct–Nov 2005 Poultry and wild migratory birds: Romania, Ukraine (13)
Oct 2005 Wild birds: Thailand (15)
Oct–Nov 2005 Poultry, wild birds, some humans: 7 Chinese provinces (15)
Oct 2005 Migratory waterfowl: Croatia (13)
Oct 2005 Poultry: Tula and Tambov regions, European Russia (14)
Oct 2005 Quarantined birds from Taiwan in United Kingdom (16)
Jan 2006 Humans: Iraq (15)
Jan 2006 Poultry: Nigeria, India (Maharashtra) (15)
Feb 2006 Migratory waterfowl: Bulgaria, Greece, Italy, Slovenia, Bosnia, Azerbaijan, Iran, Georgia, Germany, Switzerland, Austria, Hungary, France, Croatia, Slovakia, Bosnia (15)
Feb 2006 Poultry: Egypt, Cameroon, Niger, Ethiopia (15)
Mar 2006 Migratory birds: Sweden, Denmark, Serbia, Poland, Czech Republic (15)
Mar 2006 Poultry: Afghanistan, Pakistan, Albania, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon (15)
Apr 2006 Poultry: Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, Myanmar, Nigeria, Palestinian Autonomous Territories (15)
May 2006 Poultry: Sudan; migratory birds: United Kingdom (15)

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