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Volume 12, Number 10—October 2006

Perspective

Birds and Influenza H5N1 Virus Movement to and within North America

John H. Rappole*Comments to Author  and Zdenek Hubálek†
Author affiliations: *Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, USA; †Academy of Sciences, Valtice, Czech Republic

Main Article

Table 2

Known interhemispheric movement by migratory or vagrant waterfowl (Ciconiiformes, Anseriformes, Charadriiformes), domestic bird trade (Galliformes), or exotic bird trade (Galliformes, Psittaciformes) from Eurasia to North America*

Species Likely mode of entry
Bean goose (Anser fabalis) Migration†
Greylag goose (A. anser) (domestic) Exotic and domestic bird trade
Whooper swan (Cygnus cygnus) Migration†
Falcated duck (Anas falcata) Migration,† exotic bird trade, zoos, vagrant
Eurasian wigeon (A. penelope) Migration,†‡ exotic bird trade, zoos
Mallard (A. platyrhynchos) (domestic and wild) Exotic and domestic bird trade
Garganey (A. querquedula) Migration,†‡ exotic bird trade, zoos
Green-winged teal (A. crecca) Migration†‡
Common pochard (Aythya ferina) Migration†
Tufted duck (Aythya fuligula) Migration†‡
Smew (Mergellus albellus) Migration†
Jungle fowl (Gallus gallus) (domestic) Domestic bird trade
Pheasants (Phasianidae) Exotic bird trade, zoos
Quail (Coturnix coturnix) Domestic bird trade
Wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) (domestic) Domestic bird trade
Red-faced cormorant (Phalacrocorax urile) Migration§
Gray heron (Ardea cinerea) Vagrant
Little egret (Egretta garzetta) Vagrant
Cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis) Vagrant
Eurasian kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) Vagrant
Northern lapwing (Vanellus vanellus) Vagrant
Mongolian plover (Charadrius mongolus) Migration†
Common ringed plover (C. hiaticula) Migration§
Eurasian dotterel (C. morinellus) Migration§
Spotted redshank (Tringa erythropus) Migration†
Wood sandpiper (T. glareola) Migration†
Gray-tailed tattler (Heteroscelus brevipes) Migration†
Bar-tailed godwit (Limosa lapponica) Migration§
Red-necked stint (Calidris ruficollis) Migration§
Little stint (C. minuta) Vagrant
Sharp-tailed sandpiper (C. acuminata) Migration†§
Ruff (Philomachus pugnax) Migration†‡
Little gull (Larus minutus) Migration‡
Black-headed gull (L. ridibundus) Migration†‡
Black-tailed gull (L. crassirostris) Vagrant
Yellow-legged gull (L. cachinnans) Vagrant
Slaty-backed gull (L. schistisagus) Migration†
Common tern (Sterna hirundo) Vagrant
Rock pigeon (Columba livia) (domestic) Exotic bird trade
Oriental turtle-dove (Streptopelia orientalis) Exotic bird trade
European turtle-dove (S. turtur) Exotic bird trade
Eurasian collared-dove (S. decaocto) Exotic bird trade
Parrots (Psittacidae) Exotic bird trade

*Species shown in boldface are known to have been infected with highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1. Sources for information on migrant or vagrant status are Kessel and Gibson (28), Palmer (29), and the American Ornithologists' Union (30). Nomenclature follows the American Ornithologists Union checklist (30) to the degree possible. Supplementary source: Rasmussen and Anderton (31).
†Route 2. See Figure 2.
‡Route 3. See Figure 2.
§Route 1. See Figure 2.

*Species shown in boldface are known to have been infected with highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1. Sources for information on migrant or vagrant status are Kessel and Gibson (28), Palmer (29), and the American Ornithologists' Union (30). Nomenclature follows the American Ornithologists Union checklist (30) to the degree possible. Supplementary source: Rasmussen and Anderton (31).
†Route 2. See Figure 2.
‡Route 3. See Figure 2.
§Route 1. See Figure 2.

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