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Volume 12, Number 10—October 2006

Perspective

Birds and Influenza H5N1 Virus Movement to and within North America

John H. Rappole*Comments to Author  and Zdenek Hubálek†
Author affiliations: *Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, USA; †Academy of Sciences, Valtice, Czech Republic

Main Article

Table A1

Wild bird species confirmed to have been infected with highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1*

Species Localities and dates
"Wild birds"† Siberia, Russia, Aug 2005 (1)
"Wild birds"† Kazakhstan, Aug 2005 (1)
Great crested grebe (Podiceps cristatus)‡ Siberia, Aug 2005 (2)
Black-necked swan (Cygnus melanocoryphusHong Kong, Dec 2002 (3)
Whooper swan (Cygnus cygnus)‡ Mongolia, Aug 2005; Germany, Denmark, and Iran, Feb 2005 (1,2)
Mute swan (Cygnus olor)Romania, Croatia, Oct 2005; Russia (Volga delta), Nov 2005; Bulgaria, Greece, Italy, Slovenia, France, Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Hungary, Bosnia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Iran, Feb 2006; Denmark, Serbia, Poland, and Czech Republic, March 2006 (1,2)
Coscoroba swan (Coscoroba coscoroba) § Hong Kong, Dec 2002 (3)
Bar-headed goose (Anser indicus) †‡ Hong Kong, Dec 2002; Qinghai Lake, China, Apr 2005; Mongolia, Aug 2005 (1,3,4)
Lesser white-fronted goose (Anser erythropus)‡ Romania, Oct 2005 (2)
Greylag goose (Anser anser)‡ Denmark and Germany, March 2006 (2)
Canada goose (Branta Canadensis§¶ Hong Kong,¶ Dec 2002 (3)
Red-breasted goose (Branta ruficollis)‡ Greece (Skyros Island), Feb 2006 (2)
Ruddy shelduck‡(Tadorna ferruginea)‡ Mongolia, Aug 2005, Kalmykia, Aug 2005 (2,5)
Wood duck (Aix sponsaHong Kong, Dec 2002 (3)
Argentine shoveller (Anas plataleaHong Kong, Dec 2002 (3)
White-cheeked pintail (Anas bahamensisHong Kong, Dec 2002 (3)
Chestnut-breasted teal (Anas castanea)# Hong Kong, Dec 2002 (3)
Chiloe wigeon (Anas sibilatrixHong Kong, Dec 2002 (3)
Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos)‡ Siberia, Aug 2005; Germany, Switzerland, and Hungary, Feb 2006 (2,5)
"Wild ducks" (Anas sp.)‡ Siberia, Aug 2005, Kalmykia, Aug 2005; Romania, Oct 2005; Crimea, Dec 2005; Germany, Switzerland, Ukraine, and Turkey, Feb 2006; Cameroon, March 2006 (1,2,5)
Gadwall (Anas strepera)‡ Siberia, Aug 2005 (5)
Eurasian wigeon (Anas penelope)‡ Mongolia, Aug 2005 (2)
Maned wood duck (Cheonetta jubata)# Hong Kong, Dec 2002 (3)
Common pochard (Aythya ferina)‡ Siberia, Aug 2005; France, Feb 2006; Switzerland and Germany, March 2006 (2,5)
Tufted duck (Aythya fuligula)‡ South Sweden, Denmark, Germany, and Switzerland, March 2006 (2)
Scaup (Aythya marila)‡ South Sweden, March 2006 (2)
Red-crested pochard (Netta rufina)† Hong Kong, Dec 2002 (3)
Rosy-billed pochard (Netta peposacaHong Kong, Dec 2002 (3)
Ruddy duck (Oxyura jamaicensisHong Kong, Dec 2002 (3)
Goosander (Mergus merganserPoland, March 2006 (2)
Smew (Mergus albellus)‡ Slovakia, Feb 2006 (2)
Little cormorant (Phalacrocorax niger)† Thailand, Dec 2004 (1)
Great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo)†‡ Qinghai Lake, People's Republic of China, Apr 2005 (4)
Grey heron (Ardea cinerea)†‡ Hong Kong, Dec 2002, Jan 2004, Dec 2004; Romania, Oct 2005 (13); Slovenia, Feb 2006 (2)
Little egret (Egretta garzetta)†‡ Hong Kong, Dec 2002 (3); Hong Kong, Jan 2006 (2)
Chinese pond Heron (Ardeola bacchus)† Hong Kong, Jan 2005 (1)
Asian openbill (Anastomus oscitans)† Thailand, Dec 2004 (1)
Greater flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber)†** Hong Kong, Dec 2002; Kuwait, Nov 2005 (3,5)
Grey-headed fish-eagle (Ichthyophaga ichthyaetus)† Cambodia, Feb 2004 (1)
"Serpent eagle" (Spilornis sp.)† Cambodia, Feb 2004 (1)
"Hawk-eagle" (Spizaetus sp)† Cambodia, Feb 2004 (1)
Mountain hawk-eagle (Spizaetus nipalensis)† Thailand, Oct 2004 (6)
Common buzzard (Buteo buteo)‡ Denmark and Germany, March 2006 (2)
Rough-legged buzzard (Buteo lagopus)‡ Denmark. March 2006 (2)
Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis)‡ Germany, Feb 2006 (2)
Peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus)†‡ Hong Kong, Mar 2003, Jan 2004; Slovakia, Feb 2006; Denmark and Germany, March 2006 (1,2)
Saker falcon (Falco cherrug)† Saudi Arabia, Jan 2006 (2)
Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus)‡ Germany, March 2006 (2)
Coot (Fulica atra)‡ Siberia, Aug 2005; Kalmykia Aug 2005 (5); Switzerland and Germany, March 2006 (2)
Common moorhen (Gallinula chloropus)**. Romania, Oct 2005 (2)
Great black-headed gull (Larus ichthyaetus)‡ Qinghai Lake, China, Apr 2005 (4)
Brown-headed gull (Larus brunnicephalus)‡ Qinghai Lake, China, Apr 2005 (4)
Black-headed gull (Larus ridibundus)†‡ Hong Kong, Dec 2002 (3); Hungary, Feb 2006 (2)
"Gulls" (Larus spp)‡. Crimea, Dec 2005; Croatia, March 2006 (2)
"Pigeons" (Columbiformes)† Thailand, Dec 2004 (1)
Rock pigeon (Columbia livia f. domestica)†** Hong Kong, Dec 2002; Thailand, 2005; Chelyabinsk, Russia, Aug 2005 (2,3,5); Crimea, Dec 2005 (2)
Red-collared dove (Streptopelia tranquebarica)† Thailand, Dec 2004 (1)
Eagle owl (Bubo bubo)‡ Sweden, March 2006 (2)
Forest eagle-owl (Bubo nipalensis)† Cambodia, Feb 2004 (1)
Brown fish-owl (Ketupa zeylonensis)† Cambodia, Feb 2004 (1)
Buffy fish-owl (Ketupa ketupu)† Cambodia, Feb 2004 (1)
Spotted wood-owl (Strix seloputo)† Cambodia, Feb 2004 (1)
"Parrots" (Psittaciformes)† Cambodia, Feb 2004 (1)
Black drongo (Dicrurus macrocercus)† Thailand, Dec 2004 (1)
House crow (Corvus splendens)‡ Hong Kong, Jan 2006; Afghanistan and Pakistan, March 2006 (2)
Large-billed crow (Corvus macrorhynchus)‡ Hong Kong, Jan 2006 (2)
Carrion crow (Corvus corone)‡ Crimea, Jan 2006 (2)
"Crows" (Corvus sp.)† Japan, Mar 2004 (1)
Rook (Corvus frugilegus)‡ Crimea, Dec 2005 (2)
Jackdaw (Corvus monedula)‡ Crimea, Dec 2005 (2)
Common magpie (Pica pica sericea)‡ Hong Kong, Jan 2006 (2)
"Magpies" (Corvidae)† Korea, Mar 2004 (1)
Oriental magpie robin (Copsichus saularis)‡ Hong Kong, Jan 2006 (2)
Red-billed mesia (Leiothrix lutea)† Taiwan, Oct 2005 (2)
Crested myna (Acridotheres cristatellus)‡ Hong Kong, Jan 2006 (2)
"Mynas" (Sturnidae)** Thailand, Oct 2005 (2)
Scaly-breasted munia (Lonchura punctulata)† Thailand, Dec 2004 (1)
White-rumped munia (Lonchura striata)‡ Hong Kong, Jan 2006 (2)
Munia (Lonchura sp.)‡ Hong Kong, Jan 2006 (2)
Japanese white eye (Zosterops japonica simplex)‡ Hong Kong, Jan 2006 (2)
Tree sparrow (Passer montanus)†‡** Hong Kong, Dec 2002; Thailand, 2005 (13)

*Those with known migratory populations are shown in bold. Underlined species had >1 seropositive test results in apparently healthy birds. Nomenclature follows the American Ornithologists' Union checklist (7) to the degree possible. Rasmussen and Anderton (8) is used as a supplementary source on this topic. †Old World species infected as captives or in association with captive birds in a zoological park, smuggler holding pen, or domestic poultry facility. ‡Old World species in which infection was detected at a site distant from any known infected domestic bird. §South American species, infected as a captive in a zoologic park. ¶North American species, infected as a captive in a zoologic park. #Australian species, infected as a captive in zoologic park. **Old World species; possible association with infected captive birds or poultry unknown.

*Those with known migratory populations are shown in bold. Underlined species had >1 seropositive test results in apparently healthy birds. Nomenclature follows the American Ornithologists' Union checklist (7) to the degree possible. Rasmussen and Anderton (8) is used as a supplementary source on this topic. †Old World species infected as captives or in association with captive birds in a zoological park, smuggler holding pen, or domestic poultry facility. ‡Old World species in which infection was detected at a site distant from any known infected domestic bird. §South American species, infected as a captive in a zoologic park. ¶North American species, infected as a captive in a zoologic park. #Australian species, infected as a captive in zoologic park. **Old World species; possible association with infected captive birds or poultry unknown.

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