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Volume 12, Number 12—December 2006

Research

Foodborne Transmission of Nipah Virus, Bangladesh

Stephen P. Luby*Comments to Author , Mahmudur Rahman†, M. Jahangir Hossain*, Lauren S. Blum*, M. Mushtaq Husain†, Emily Gurley*, Rasheda Khan*, Be-Nazir Ahmed†, Shafiqur Rahman†, Nazmun Nahar*, Eben Kenah*, James A. Comer‡, and Thomas G. Ksiazek‡
Author affiliations: *International Centre for Diarrheal Disease Research, Dhaka, Bangladesh; †Institute for Epidemiology Disease Control and Research, Dhaka, Bangladesh; ‡Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA

Main Article

Table 3

Bivariate analysis of risk factors for encephalitis Habla Union, Tangail District, Bangladesh, 2005

Risk factor Case-patients with this risk factor,
n = 11; no. (%) Controls with
this risk factor,
n = 33; no. (%) Odds ratio 95% Confidence limits* p value†
Male sex   6 (55) 16 (49) 1.3 0.31– 5.4 0.73
Climbed trees   3 (27) 11(33) 0.8 0.14–3.4 1.0
Physical contact with living animal
Pig   0 0 Undefined 1.0
Fruit bat   0 0 Undefined 1.0
Cow   5 (46) 21 (64) 0.48 0.11–2.0 0.31
Goat   2 (18) 6 (18) 1.00 0.12–5.8 1.0
Sheep   0 2 (6) 0 0, 11 1.0
Chicken   5 (46) 9 (27) 2.2 0.50–9.4 0.29
Duck   3 (27) 7 (21) 1.4 0.24–6.7 0.69
Cat   1 (9) 10 (30) 0.23 0.01–1.7 0.24
Physical contact with any sick animal 4 (36) 4 (12) 4.1 0.7–22 0.09
Physical contact with sick chicken   2 (18) 2 (6) 3.4 0.3–36 0.26
Killed a sick animal   0 1 (3) 0 0–57 1.0
Ate an animal that had been sick at the time it was killed   0 1 (3) 0 0–57 1.0
Drank raw date palm sap   7 (64) 6 (18) 7.9 1.6–38 0.01
Ate
Banana   3 (27) 11 (33) 0.75 0.14–3.4 1.00
Papaya   1 (9) 7 (21) 0.37 0.01–2.9 0.66
Starfruit   2 (18) 8 (24) 0.7 0.09–3.8 1.0
Guava   5 (46) 14 (42) 1.1 0.27–4.6 1.0
Tamarind   1 (9) 3 (9) 1.0 0.03–11 1.0
Buroy   2 (18) 6 (18) 1.0 0.12–5.8 1.00
Traveled outside subdistrict   4 (36) 10 (30) 1.3 0.28–5.6 0.73
Touched someone with fever and altered mental status who later died   0 7 (21) 0.0 0.0–2.0 0.16
Been in the same room with someone with fever and altered mental status who later died   2 (18) 9 (27) 0.59 0.08–3.2 0.70

*Exact mid-p.
†All p values are 2-tailed. Fisher exact test used when expected cell size <5.

*Exact mid-p.
†All p values are 2-tailed. Fisher exact test used when expected cell size <5.

*Exact mid-p.
†All p values are 2-tailed. Fisher exact test used when expected cell size <5.

Main Article

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