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Volume 12, Number 2—February 2006

Dispatch

Waterborne Toxoplasmosis, Brazil, from Field to Gene

Lenildo de Moura*1, Lilian Maria Garcia Bahia-Oliveira†1, Marcelo Y. Wada*, Jeffrey L. Jones‡, Suely H. Tuboi*, Eduardo H. Carmo*, Walter Massa Ramalho*, Natal J. Camargo§, Ronaldo Trevisan§, Regina M.T. Graça¶, Alexandre J. da Silva‡, Iaci Moura‡, J.P. Dubey#, and Denise O. Garrett**
Author affiliations: *Ministério de Saúde, Brasília, Brasil; †Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; ‡Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; §Secretaria de Saúde do Estado do Paraná, Curitiba, Brazil; ¶Laboratório Central de Saúde Pública, Curitiba, Brazil; #United States Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland; **Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Foundation, Atlanta, Georgia, USA

Main Article

Table 1

Univariate analysis showing risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii infection for statistically significant factors (positive results only), N = 376

Characteristic No. persons* Case Control Matched odds ratio p value 95% confidence interval
Water exposure
Drank water exclusively from municipal tank reservoir 3.73 0.016 1.27–10.93
A 350 152 198
B 26 4 22
Household tank 2.16 0.006 1.24–4.01
No 95 28 67
Yes 281 128 153
Drank >10 cups water per day 2.07 0.004 1.24–3.61
No 270 97 173
Yes 106 59 47
Drank beverages made with unfiltered water 2.25 0.044 1.02–5.50
No 34 20 14
Yes 342 136 206
Food exposure
Ate undercooked meat in past 30 days 2.71 0.027 1.11–7.34
No 345 136 209
Yes 31 20 11
Ate commercial ice cream 3.43 0.000 2.08–5.67
No 188 51 137
Yes 188 105 83
Ate bacon 1.89 0.009 1.15–3.02
No 228 82 146
Yes 148 74 74
Ate lamb 1.85 0.043 1.02–3.51
No 316 122 194
Yes 60 34 26
Ate in restaurants in the past 30 days 1.71 0.028 1.06–2.96
No 277 105 172
Yes 99 51 48

*Case-patients ranged from 1 to 72 years of age (median = 28); 79 (51%) were male; 6 (3.8%) were pregnant woman.

Main Article

1These authors contributed equally to this study.

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