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Volume 12, Number 2—February 2006

Research

Free-grazing Ducks and Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza, Thailand

Marius Gilbert*Comments to Author , Prasit Chaitaweesub†, Tippawon Parakamawongsa†, Sith Premashthira†, Thanawat Tiensin†‡, Wantanee Kalpravidh§, Hans Wagner§, and Jan Slingenbergh§¶
Author affiliations: *Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium; †Department of Livestock Development, Bangkok, Thailand; ‡Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands; §Food and Agriculture Organization, Bangkok, Thailand; ¶Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome, Italy

Main Article

Table 1

Variables used in the analysis of highly pathogenic avian influenza distribution in Thailand (subdistrict level) and Suphanburi Province (village level)

Category Description Abbreviation
Poultry* No. broilers and layer hens BrLaCh
No. native chickens NaCh
No. meat and layer ducks MeLaDu
No. free-grazing ducks FgDu
No. cocks Co
No. other poultry Ot
Land use/water† Proportion of land occupied by wetland in the subdistrict, and in a 1-, 2-, 5-, and 10-km radius neighborhood Pwet, Pwet1K, Pwet2K, Pwet5K, Pwet10K
Proportion of land occupied by rice fields in the subdistrict, and in a 1-, 2-, 5-, and 10- km radius neighborhood Price, Price1K, Price2K, Price5K, Price10K
River/stream density (per km2) in the subdistrict and in a 1-, 2-, 5-, and 10-km radius neighborhood Sd, Sd1K, Sd2K, Sd5K, Sd10K
People/roads‡ No. humans Hpop
No. roads Nroads
Topographic§ Elevation, m Alt
Slope, degrees Slp

*Census in the subdistrict or village.
†Estimate in the subdistrict was not used for the village-level analysis; distance-based variables between the 1- and 10-km neighborhood were estimated around the village point or subdistrict centroid.
‡No. roads in the subdistrict or connected to the village.
§These variables were averaged in the subdistrict polygon for subdistrict level analysis or extracted at the point of the village for village-level analysis.

Main Article

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