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Volume 12, Number 2—February 2006

Research

Fresh Chicken as Main Risk Factor for Campylobacteriosis, Denmark

Anne Wingstrand*Comments to Author , Jakob Neimann*1, Jørgen Engberg†, Eva Møller Nielsen*†, Peter Gerner-Smidt†2, Henrik C. Wegener*, and Kåre Mølbak†
Author affiliations: *Danish Institute for Food and Veterinary Research, Copenhagen, Denmark; †Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark

Main Article

Table 1

Risk factors obtained from 3 analytic approaches for sporadic campylobacteriosis (CB) in Denmark, 2000–2001*

Variables† Analysis A‡§: 107 CB patients vs. 178 matched controls (multivariate model), OR (95% CI), p Analysis B§¶: 74 Domestic CB patients vs. 114 matched controls (multivariate model), OR (95% CI), p Analysis C#: 141 CB patients vs. 386 non-CB controls (univariate analysis), OR (95% CI), p
Travel (14 d)
Southern Europe 15.81** (2.63–94.9), 0.003 0.57 (0.29–1.11), 0.097
Europe, other 0.068** (0.007–0.64), 0.019 0.33 (0.11–0.97), 0.044
Outside Europe 16/107 CB, 1/178 controls,** infinite 0.93 (0.55–1.55), 0.77
Holiday other than weekend 0.37 (0.13–1.09), 0.072 0.23** (0.083–0.64), 0.005 0.92 (0.62–1.35), 0.67
Chicken bought unfrozen 6.03** (2.17–16.80), 0.0006 5.80** (2.11–15.93), 0.0006 2.91 (1.85–4.59), <0.0001
Turkey†† 0.047** (0.004–0.51), 0.012 1.40 (0.59–3.34), 0.45 0.85 (0.54–1.34), 0.47
Turkey bought fresh 61.1** (4.35–857.6), 0.002 1.75 (0.62–4.93), 0.29 1.43 (0.79–2.52), 0.21
Minced beef/veal at barbecue 0.30 (0.065–1.36), 0.12 0.12 (0.018–0.74), 0.022 0.70 (0.28–1.76), 0.45
Pork prepared in large pieces 0.10** (0.028–0.37), 0.0005 0.15** (0.046–0.49), 0.002 0.53 (0.29–0.96), 0.035
Any white bread without bran or grains last month 2.55 (0.92–7.08), 0.072 3.21 (1.15–8.94), 0.026 1.28 (0.73–2.22), 0.39
White bread with bran or grains >5 times/mo 4.54** (1.83–11.23), 0.001 3.10 (1.30–7.35), 0.0105 1.45 (0.97–2.17), 0.074
Apples and pears 0.12** (0.034–0.40), 0.0007 0.21** (0.07–0.61), 0.004 0.83 (0.54–1.27), 0.39
Strawberries‡‡ 0.22**(0.069–0.72), 0.012 1.69 (0.60–4.80), 0.32 1.28 (0.75–2.19), 0.37
Raw vegetables daily 0.16**(0.051–0.51), 0.002 0.24**(0.082–0.71), 0.0099 0.93 (0.55–1.56), 0.78
Chives (fresh) 1.94 (0.76–4.95), 0.17 2.78 (1.10–6.99), 0.030 1.19 (0.79–1.77), 0.40
Urban residency 0.17** (0.050–0.58), 0.004 0.25 (0.074–0.85), 0.027 0.76 (0.45–1.31), 0.32
Tap water from summerhouse 4.68 (1.11–19.8), 0.036 3.00 (0.80–11.3), 0.10 0.80 (0.40–1.61), 0.53

*Variables with p<0.05 in the final models from analyses A, B, or both, are shown.
†Focus period is the week before onset or filling in questionnaire if nothing else is mentioned.
‡All CB patients (including travelers vs. healthy controls).
§Match of patients and controls: age, sex, geography, and as far as possible, to time of disease onset for patient. The risk from factors not included in the final model was achieved by forcing them into the model 1 by 1.
¶Only domestic CB patients vs. healthy controls.
#CB patients vs. non-CB bacterial gastroenteritis patients, match to patients only on time of disease onset.
**Variables in final models A and B.
††Modifies the risk from turkey bought fresh in model A.
‡‡Modifies the risk from travel to southern Europe in model A.

Main Article

1Current affiliation: Danisco Sugars, Copenhagen, Denmark

2Current affiliation: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

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