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Volume 12, Number 2—February 2006

Research

Fresh Chicken as Main Risk Factor for Campylobacteriosis, Denmark

Anne Wingstrand*Comments to Author , Jakob Neimann*1, Jørgen Engberg†, Eva Møller Nielsen*†, Peter Gerner-Smidt†2, Henrik C. Wegener*, and Kåre Mølbak†
Author affiliations: *Danish Institute for Food and Veterinary Research, Copenhagen, Denmark; †Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark

Main Article

Table 2

Case-control study on sporadic campylobacteriosis (CB) in Denmark, 2000–2001*

Variables Exposures
Analysis A† (including travelers)
Analysis B‡ (only domestic cases)
Analysis C§ (case-case study)
107 CB patients,
no. (%) 178 matched controls,
no. (%) 74 CB patients,
no. (%) 114 matched controls,
no. (%) 141 CB patients,
no. (%) 386 non-CB controls,
no. (%)
Travel (14 d)
No travel 78 (72.8) 156 (87.6) 74 (100) 114 (100) 100 (70.9) 241 (62.4)
Southern Europe 11 (10.2) 6 (3.3) 4 (2.8) 29 (7.5)
Europe, other 2 (1.8) 15 (8.4) 12 (8.5) 51 (13.2)
Outside Europe 16 (14.9) 1 (0.5) 25 (17.7) 65 (16.8)
Holiday other than weekend 49 (45.7) 91 (51.1) 22 (29.7) 52 (45.6) 65 (46.0) 186 (48.2)
Chicken bought unfrozen 36 (33.6) 40 (22.4) 28 (37.8) 21 (18.4) 46 (32.6) 55 (14.2)
Turkey 29 (27.1) 57 (32.0) 23 (31.0) 33 (28.9) 34 (24.1) 105 (27.2)
Turkey bought fresh 28 (26.1) 35 (19.6) 15 (20.2) 15 (13.1) 21 (14.9) 42 (10.9)
Minced beef/veal at barbecue 4 (3.7) 21 (11.7) 3 (4.0) 9 (7.8) 6 (4.3) 23 (6.0)
Pork prepared in large pieces 11 (10.3) 46 (25.8) 8 (10.8) 28 (24.5) 15 (10.6) 71 (18.4)
Any white bread without bran or grains last month 92 (86.0) 142 (79.7) 65 (87.8) 86 (75.4) 122 (86.5) 322 (83.4)
White bread with bran or grains >5 times/mo 75 (70.0) 100 (56.1) 52 (70.2) 62 (54.3) 94 (66.6) 224 (58.0)
Apples and pears 76 (71.0) 148 (83.1) 55 (74.3) 98 (85.9) 98 (69.5) 283 (73.3)
Strawberries 16 (14.9) 43 (24.1) 18 (24.3) 22 (19.2) 23 (16.3) 51 (13.2)
Raw vegetables daily 16 (14.9) 46 (25.8) 10 (13.5) 29 (25.4) 23 (16.3) 67 (17.4)
Chives (fresh) 38 (35.5) 58 (32.5) 30 (40.5) 34 (29.8) 53 (37.6) 130 (33.7)
Urban residence 88 (82.2) 158 (88.7) 61 (82.4) 99 (86.8) 118 (83.7) 336 (87.0)
Tap water from summerhouse 9 (8.4) 12 (6.7) 8 (10.8) 7 (6.1) 11 (7.8) 37 (9.6)

*Exposures for variables with p<0.05 in the final models from analysis A, B, or both.
†Analysis A: all CB patients (including travelers) vs. healthy controls matched to patients by age, sex, geography, and as far as possible, to time of disease onset for the patient.
‡Analysis B: domestic CB patients vs. healthy controls matched to patients by age, sex, geography, and as far as possible, to time of disease onset for the patient.
§Analysis C: CB patients vs. non-CB bacterial gastroenteritis patients, match to patients only on time of disease onset.

Main Article

1Current affiliation: Danisco Sugars, Copenhagen, Denmark

2Current affiliation: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

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