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Volume 12, Number 4—April 2006

Perspective

Potential Arbovirus Emergence and Implications for the United Kingdom

Ernest Andrew Gould*Comments to Author , Stephen Higgs†, Alan Buckley*, and Tamara Sergeevna Gritsun*
Author affiliations: *Centre for Ecology and Hydrology Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom; †University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas, USA

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Table

Zoonotic arboviruses identified in western Europe (not including Russia) by serologic testing or isolation*

Country Seropositive† Virus isolation Reference
Sweden SINV, TBEV, INKV, BATV SINV, INKV, BATV (12,16)
Finland SINV, TBEV, TAHV, INKV, BATV TBEV, INKV, BATV, UUKV (12)
Norway LIV, TBEV, TAHV, INKV, BATV SINV, LIV, TBEV, INKV, BATV, UUKV (12,17)
Poland SINV, WNV, TBEV, UUKV UUKV (12,18)
Estonia SINV (12)
Austria SINV, SFV, CHIKV, TBEV, USUV, TAHV, BATV TBEV, USUV, TAHV, BATV (12,19)
Czechoslovakia SINV, WNV, TBEV, TAHV, BATV, LEDV SINV, WNV, TBEV, TAHV, BATV, UUKV (12,20)
France TBEV, WNV, TAHV TBEV, WNV, TAHV (12,21)
Germany TBEV, TAHV, BATV TBEV, TAHV, BATV (12)
Portugal SINV, CHIKV, WNV, TAHV, BATV, TBEV WNV (12,22,23)
Spain SFV, CHIKV, TBEV, SSEV, TAHV (12,24)
Italy/Sicily SINV, CHIKV, WNV, TBEV, TAHV, SFSV SINV, WNV, TBEV, SFSV, TAHV (12,25)
Yugoslavia SINV, TBEV, TAHV, BATV TBEV, TAHV, BATV (2527)
Albania TBEV, TAHV (12)
Hungary WNV, TAHV WNV, TAHV, UUKV (20,25)
Romania SINV, SFV, WNV, TBEV TBEV, WNV, TAHV, BATV, LEDV (12,17,27)
Greece SINV, TBEV, TAHV, GGEV, CCHFV CCHFV (12,28)
United Kingdom/Ireland LIV, SINV, WNV, USUV, TAHV, UUKV LIV, UUKV (2,5)

*Adapted and modified from Lundstrom (12), which contains a more comprehensive list of relevant references. SINV, Sindbis virus; TBEV, tickborne encephalitis virus; INKV, Inkoo virus; BATV, Batai virus; TAHV, Tahyna virus; UUKV, Uukuniemi virus; WNV, West Nile virus; SFV, Semliki Forest virus; CHIKV, Chikungunya virus; USUV, Usutu virus; LEDV, Lednice virus; SSEV, Spanish sheep encephalomyelitis virus; SFSV, sandfly fever Sicilian virus; GGEV, Greek goat encephalomyelitis virus; CCHFV, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus; LIV, Louping ill virus.
†Positive reactions to dengue virus or yellow fever virus are not included as they are assumed to represent cross-reactions with WNV or other Japanese encephalitis complex flaviviruses.

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