Domestic Ducks and H5N1 Influenza Epidemic, Thailand
Thaweesak Songserm*, Rungroj Jam-on*, Numdee Sae-Heng*, Noppadol Meemak†, Diane J. Hulse-Post‡, Katharine M. Sturm-Ramirez‡, and Robert G. Webster‡
Author affiliations: *Kasetsart University, Nakornpathom, Thailand; †Western Veterinary Research and Development Center, Rachaburi, Thailand; ‡St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee, USA
Figure 1. Duck-raising systems in Thailand. A) Closed system with high biosecurity, an evaporative cooling system, and strict entrance control. B) Open system but with netting to prevent entrance of passerine birds. Biosecurity was not strictly enforced. This system is no longer approved for the raising of poultry. C) "Grazing duck raising." Biosecurity is never practiced in this system. D) Backyard Muscovy ducks raised for a family; no biosecurity is practiced in this system.
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