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Volume 12, Number 5—May 2006
THEME ISSUE
Tuberculosis Special Section

Research

Beijing/W Genotype Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Drug Resistance

European Concerted Action on New Generation Genetic Markers and Techniques for the Epidemiology and Control of Tuberculosis
Author affiliations: *RIVM, Bilthoven, the Netherlands

Main Article

Table 3

Proportion of tuberculosis cases caused by the Beijing genotype by age group of patient*

Study Age <30 y, Beijing/total (%) Age 30–49 y, Beijing/total (%) Age >50 y, Beijing/total (%) p for trend
Western Europe
Western Austria 2/89 (2.3) 45/214 (1.9) 1/370 (0.3) 0.05
Denmark 4/210 (1.9) 6/623 (1.0) 7/826 (0.9) 0.3
Finland 2/35 (5.7) 5/128 (3.9) 6/931 (0.6) 0.002
The Netherlands 70/703 (10.0) 47/993 (4.7) 85/1773 (4.8) <0.001
Western Sweden 1/5 (20.0) 1/7 (14.3) 1/65 (1.5) 0.05
United Kingdom
Inner London 1/41 (2.4) 2/67 (3.0) 2/55 (3.6) 0.7
London 6/86 (7.0) 1/104 (1.0) 3/83 (3.7) 0.2
Eastern Europe
Estonia 14/43 (32.6) 25/96 (26.0) 15/52 (28.9) 0.7
Russia
St. Petersburg 74/112 (66.1) 61/111 (55.0) 19/45 (42.2) 0.02
Archangel† 13/25 (52.0) 32/77 (41.6) 8/16 (50.0) 0.8
Middle East
Iran 2/20 (10.0) 2/25 (8.0) 1/26 (3.9) 0.4
Sub-Saharan Africa
Malawi‡ 19/341 (5.6) 21/522 (4.0) 4/167 (2.4) 0.08
South Africa: Cape Town 51/299 (17.1) 77/434 (17.7) 11/111 (9.9) 0.2
Zimbabwe: Harare 3/94 (3.2) 1/102 (1.0) 0/16 (0.0) 0.2
North America
United States
New Jersey 1/18 (5.6) 11/62 (17.7) 3/71 (4.2) 0.2
San Francisco 1/21 (4.8) 7/58 (12.1) 4/30 (13.3) 0.4
Caribbean
Cuba
Not Havana 10/48 (20.8) 6/42 (14.3) 6/70 (8.6) 0.06
Havana 1/11 (9.1) 2/21 (9.5) 1/19 (5.3) 0.7
Latin America
Argentina: Buenos Aires 5/255 (2.0) 0/224 (0.0) 0/103 (0.0) 0.05
Brazil: São Paulo 3/144 (2.1) 0/187 (0.0) 0/51 (0.0) 0.1
Indian subcontinent
Bangladesh† 3/20 (15.0) 4/42 (9.5) 0/35 (0.0) 0.03
Southeast Asia
Indonesia: Jakarta 13/45 (28.9) 14/33 (42.4) 5/12 (41.7) 0.2
Malaysia 17/93 (18.3) 20/129 (15.5) 25/162 (15.4) 0.6
Thailand: Bangkok 33/64 (51.6) 41/88 (46.6) 24/52 (46.2) 0.5
Vietnam
Hanoi† 11/15 (73.3) 17/26 (65.4) 9/23 (39.1) 0.03
Ho Chi Minh City† 94/147 (64.0) 134/265 (50.6) 35/87 (40.2) <0.001
Ho Chi Minh City 13/21 (61.9) 17/40 (42.5) 4/14 (28.6) 0.04
Tien Giang 4/7 (57.1) 11/27 (40.7) 13/26 (50.0) 1.0
East Asia
China
Shanghai and other areas† 5/5 (100.0) 10/14 (71.4) 16/24 (66.7) 0.2
Henan 10/19 (52.6) 7/9 (77.8) 16/21 (76.2) 0.2
Hong Kong† 95/151 (62.9) 149/197 (75.6) 112/152 (73.7) 0.04
Japan: Okayama 9/12 (75.0) 19/25 (76.0) 75/105 (71.4) 0.7
Mongolia 50/95 (52.6) 42/63 (66.7) 5/10 (50.0) 0.3
Taiwan† 25/47 (53.2) 36/83 (43.4) 126/291 (43.3) 0.3

*Studies with >3 cases of Beijing genotype tuberculosis in nonimmigrants included.
†Immigration status not known.
‡Immigrants from neighboring countries included.

Main Article

1Analysis and writing committee: Judith R. Glynn, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK; Kristin Kremer, RIVM, Bilthoven, the Netherlands; Martien W. Borgdorff, Royal Netherlands Tuberculosis Association (KNCV) Tuberculosis Foundation, The Hague, the Netherlands; Mar Pujades Rodriguez, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK; and Dick van Soolingen, RIVM, Bilthoven, the Netherlands.

2The key contacts who contributed the data are listed as follows: Austria: Wolfgang Prodinger (Medizinische Universität Innsbruck); Denmark: Troels Lillebaek (Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen); Finland: Hanna Soini, Petri Ruutu, (National Public Health Institute, Helsinki); France: Cristina Gutierrez, Veronique Vincent (Institut Pasteur, Paris); Beate Heym, Veronique Friocourt (Hôpital Ambroise Paré, Boulogne-Billancourt); Isabelle Fredenucci, Jean-Pierre Flandrois (Centre Hospitalier Lyon-Sud, Lyon); Germany: Stefan Niemann (National Reference Centre for Mycobacteria, Forschungszentrum Borstel, Hamburg), Roland Diel (School of Public Health, University of Düsseldorf); Italy: Stefano Bonora (Università di Verona); Leonardo A Sechi, Stephania Zanetti (Università di Sassari); Carlo Garzelli (Università di Pisa); the Netherlands: Martien Borgdorff (KNCV Tuberculosis Foundation) Petra de Haas, Kristin Kremer, Dick van Soolingen (RIVM); Spain: Montserrat Ruiz, Juan Carlos Rodríguez, Gloria Royo (Universidad Miguel Hernández, Elche); Ana Pérez Meixeira, Jenaro Astray (Public Health Institute Getafe, Madrid), Juana Cacho, Amador Ramos (Hospital Universitario de Getafe); Maria Jose Iglesias (University of Zaragoza), Sofia Samper (Hospital Universitario Miguel Servet, Zaragoza); United Kingdom: Andrew Hayward, John Watson, Francis Drobniewski (Health Protection Agency, London); Jeremy Dale (University of Surrey) on behalf of the Steering Committee, Molecular Epidemiology of Tuberculosis in London; Sweden: Malin Ridell, Liselott Svensson (Institute of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Göteborg University); Czech Republic: Milan Kubin (Institute of Hygiene of the City of Prague); Estonia: Annika Krüüner (Tartu University, Estonia, and Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden); Russia: Olga Toungoussova (University of Oslo, Norway), Dominique Caugant (Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway), Andrey Mariandyshev (Northern State Medical University, Archangel): Olga Narvaskaya, Igor Mokrousov (St. Petersburg Pasteur Institute), Tatjana Otten, Boris Vyshnevskiy (Research Institute of Phthisiopulmonology, St. Petersburg); Iran: Mehrnoosh Doroudchi (Shiraz University of Medical Sciences); Cameroon: Sara Ngo Niobe-Eyangoh (Centre Pasteur du Cameroun, Yaoundé); Ethiopia: Judith Bruchfeld (Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control, Solna); Guinea Bissau: Tuija Koivula, Gunilla Kallenius (Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control, Solna); Malawi: Amelia Crampin, Judith Glynn (London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK) on behalf of The Karonga Prevention Study (Chilumba, Malawi); South Africa: Madalene Richardson, Paul van Helden, Rob Warren, Nulda Beyers (Stellenbosch University, Cape Town); Sudan: Ghada Sharaf-Eldin (National Health Laboratory, Khartoum); Zimbabwe: Philippa Easterbrook, Shahed Murad, Francis Drobniewski (King’s College London, UK); Cuba: Raul Diaz (Instituto Pedro Kourí, Havana); United States: Barry Kreiswirth (International Center for Public Health, Newark, NJ); Midori Kato-Maeda, Elizabeth Fair, Sebastien Gagneux, Peter Small (Stanford University, Stanford, CA); Argentina: Nora Morcillo (Reference Laboratory of Buenos Aires Tuberculosis Control Program) Angel Cataldi (National Institute of Agricultural Technology); Brazil: Lucilaine Ferrazoli (Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Sao Paulo); India: Kristin Kremer (RIVM), P. Seth (All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi); Bangladesh: Leen Rigouts, Isdore Chola Shamputa (Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium); Indonesia: Reinout van Crevel (University Medical Center Nijmegen, the Netherlands); Malaysia: Jeremy Dale (University of Surrey, Guildford, UK); Thailand: Wolfgang Prodinger (Medizinische Universität Innsbruck, Austria), Porntip Bunyaratevej (Mahidol University, Bangkok); China: James Douglas (University of Hawaii); Li Weimin (Beijing Tuberculosis and Chest Tumor Institution), Kristin Kremer (RIVM); K.M. Kam (Tuberculosis Reference Laboratory, Hong Kong); Japan: Ritsuko Ohata (Okayama Prefectural Institute for Environmental Science and Public Health); Mongolia: N. Naranbat (National Center for Communicable Diseases, Ulaanbaatar); Vietnam: Dang Duc Anh (National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi); Mai Huyen, Nguyen Thi Ngoc Lan (Ho Chi Minh City); Taiwan: Ruwen Jou (Center for Disease Control, Taipei).

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