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Volume 12, Number 5—May 2006
THEME ISSUE
Tuberculosis Special Section

Research

Beijing/W Genotype Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Drug Resistance

European Concerted Action on New Generation Genetic Markers and Techniques for the Epidemiology and Control of Tuberculosis
Author affiliations: *RIVM, Bilthoven, the Netherlands

Main Article

Table A1

Included studies on Beijing/W genotype Mycobacterium tuberculosis and drug resistance*

Country Period Source Type of TB No previous TB % Typing method Reference†
Western Europe
Austria: western 1993–2004 Laboratory receiving from nearly all hospitals in area Pulm/Extra ? Spoligo on all
Denmark: entire 1992–2001 Central laboratory for entire country Pulm/Extra 97 RFLP, spoligo (37)
Finland: entire 2000–2002 Central laboratory for entire country Pulm/Extra ? RFLP, spoligo (38)
France
Paris area 1995 All patients from 10 hospitals Pulm/Extra 88 RFLP, spoligo (39)
Paris 2001–2003 Patients at 1 hospital Pulm/Extra ? Spoligo on all
Lyon 2003 Central laboratory for area Pulm/Extra 77 Spoligo on all
Germany: Hamburg 2001 Notified patients in area ? 99 RFLP, spoligo (40)
Italy
Verona 1996–1997 Reference laboratory for area Pulm/Extra ? Spoligo on all (41)
Sardinia 1997–1998 Patients at 1 hospital Pulm/Extra 73 RFLP, spoligo
Tuscany 2002 All patients in area Pulm/Extra 83 RFLP, spoligo (42)
Netherlands: entire 1993–2002 All patients in area Pulm/Extra 96 RFLP, spoligo (43)
Spain
Elche 1993–1999 Sample of patients in area Pulm/Extra 90 RFLP, spoligo (44)
Madrid 1992–2001 All patients in area Pulm/Extra 71 RFLP, spoligo
Zaragoza 1993–1995 All patients in area Pulm/Extra ? RFLP, spoligo (45)
Sweden: western 1999–2002 Laboratory for all patients in area Pulm/Extra 87 Spoligo on all (46)
United Kingdom
Inner London 1993 Laboratories for all patients in area Pulm/Extra 89 Spoligo on all (47)
London 1995–1997 Laboratories for all patients in area Pulm/Extra 88 RFLP (48)
Central and Eastern Europe
Czech Republic: Prague and South Moravia 1998 Laboratories for all patients in areas Pulm/Extra ? Spoligo on all (49)
Estonia: entire 1994 All new pulmonary TB patients in area Pulm 100 RFLP, spoligo (50)
Russia
St. Petersburg 1999–2002 All patients in area with data Pulm/Extra 59 RFLP, spoligo (51,52)
Archangel 1998–1999 All patients at TB clinic Pulm 75 Spoligo on all (53)
North Africa and Middle East
Iran: several areas 1995–1997 All smear-positive patients from Shiraz plus random others Pulm/Extra 79 RFLP, spoligo (54)
Sub-Saharan Africa
Cameroon: western region 1997–1998 All patients from all hospitals in region Pulm 79 Spoligo on all (55,56)
Ethiopia: Addis Ababa 1996 Patients at 1 hospital Pulm 85 RFLP, spoligo (57)
Guinea Bissau: Bissau 1989–1993 All patients in area Pulm 100 RFLP, spoligo (58)
Malawi: Karonga District 1996–2003 All patients in area Pulm/Extra 93 RFLP, spoligo (59)
South Africa: Cape Town 1992–1998 All patients from 2 clinics Pulm/Extra 91 RFLP, spoligo (60)
Sudan: Khartoum 1998–1999 Patients from 2 clinics Pulm 54 Spoligo on all (61)
Zimbabwe: Harare 1997 All patients from 1 hospital Pulm 93 Spoligo on all (62)
North America
United States
New Jersey 1999 All patients in area Pulm/Extra 99 RFLP, spoligo, region A (63)
San Francisco 1998–2000 All patients in area Pulm/Extra 92 RFLP (64)
Caribbean
Cuba
Outside Havana 1994–1995 Isolates sent from regional laboratories Pulm 94 RFLP, spoligo (65)
Havana 1997–1998 Isolates sent to reference laboratory Pulm 86 RFLP (66)
Latin America
Argentina: Buenos Aires 1998–2001 All patients in 1 hospital Pulm/Extra 82 Spoligo on all
Brazil: São Paulo 2000–2002 All patients in area Pulm 72 RFLP
Indian subcontinent
India: Delhi 1995–1996 Patients from 2 male wards + clinic ? 57 RFLP, spoligo (67)
Bangladesh: Mymensingh 2001–2003 Hospitalized patients, 3 hospitals Pulm 1 Spoligo on all (68)
Southeast Asia
Indonesia: Jakarta 1998–1999 All patients from outpatient TB clinic Pulm 75 RFLP,spoligo (69)
Malaysia: entire 1993–1994 Random sample from reference laboratory Pulm/Extra 89 RFLP (70)
Thailand: Bangkok 1998–2000 All patients in single hospital Pulm/Extra Spoligo on all (71)
Vietnam
Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City 1998–1999 All new smear-positive patients at 2 centers Pulm ? Spoligo on all (72)
Ho Chi Minh City 1998–2000 HIV stratified random sample (1/3 HIV positive) Pulm 100 RFLP, spoligo
Tiet Giang Province 2003 Age stratified sample from laboratory (1/2 patients <40 y) Pulm 93 RFLP, spoligo
East Asia
China
Shanghai and other areas 1994–1995 Random sample from laboratory ? ? Spoligo on all
Henan 2001–2002 All patients in 1 hospital (severe cases) Pulm 87 RFLP
Hong Kong: Hong Kong 1998–1999 Random sample from laboratory ? 100 Spoligo on all (73)
Japan: Okayama 2000–2002 All patients in area with data Pulm/Extra 99 RFLP, spoligo (74)
Mongolia: entire 1998–1999 Random sample of patients in area Pulm 100 Spoligo on all (75)
Taiwan: entire 2002 Random sample from laboratory Pulm/Extra ? Spoligo on all (76)

*TB, tuberculosis; Pulm, pulmonary; extra, extrapulmonary; spoligo, spoligotyping; RFLP, restriction fragment length polymorphism, IS6110 fingerprinting; region A, characteristic insertion in region A.
†The references given describe the studies from which the data came. In many cases, the analysis of Beijing strains has been carried out specifically for this collaborative study. The key contacts who contributed the data are listed as follows: Austria: Wolfgang Prodinger (Medizinische Universität Innsbruck); Denmark: Troels Lillebaek (Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen); Finland: Hanna Soini, Petri Ruutu, (National Public Health Institute, Helsinki); France: Cristina Gutierrez, Veronique Vincent (Institut Pasteur, Paris); Beate Heym, Veronique Friocourt (Hôpital Ambroise Paré, Boulogne-Billancourt); Isabelle Fredenucci, Jean-Pierre Flandrois (Centre Hospitalier Lyon-Sud, Lyon); Germany: Stefan Niemann (National Reference Centre for Mycobacteria, Forschungszentrum Borstel, Hamburg), Roland Diel (School of Public Health, University of Düsseldorf); Italy: Stefano Bonora (Università di Verona); Leonardo A Sechi, Stephania Zanetti (Università di Sassari); Carlo Garzelli (Università di Pisa); the Netherlands: Martien Borgdorff (KNCV Tuberculosis Foundation) Petra de Haas, Kristin Kremer, Dick van Soolingen (RIVM); Spain: Montserrat Ruiz, Juan Carlos Rodríguez, Gloria Royo (Universidad Miguel Hernández, Elche); Ana Pérez Meixeira, Jenaro Astray (Public Health Institute Getafe, Madrid), Juana Cacho, Amador Ramos (Hospital Universitario de Getafe); Maria Jose Iglesias (University of Zaragoza), Sofia Samper (Hospital Universitario Miguel Servet, Zaragoza); United Kingdom: Andrew Hayward, John Watson, Francis Drobniewski (Health Protection Agency, London); Jeremy Dale (University of Surrey) on behalf of the Steering Committee, Molecular Epidemiology of Tuberculosis in London; Sweden: Malin Ridell, Liselott Svensson (Institute of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Göteborg University); Czech Republic: Milan Kubin (Institute of Hygiene of the City of Prague); Estonia: Annika Krüüner (Tartu University, Estonia, and Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden); Russia: Olga Toungoussova (University of Oslo, Norway), Dominique Caugant (Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway), Andrey Mariandyshev (Northern State Medical University, Archangel): Olga Narvaskaya, Igor Mokrousov (St. Petersburg Pasteur Institute), Tatjana Otten, Boris Vyshnevskiy (Research Institute of Phthisiopulmonology, St. Petersburg); Iran: Mehrnoosh Doroudchi (Shiraz University of Medical Sciences); Cameroon: Sara Ngo Niobe-Eyangoh (Centre Pasteur du Cameroun, Yaoundé); Ethiopia: Judith Bruchfeld (Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control, Solna); Guinea Bissau: Tuija Koivula, Gunilla Kallenius (Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control, Solna); Malawi: Amelia Crampin, Judith Glynn (London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK) on behalf of The Karonga Prevention Study (Chilumba, Malawi); South Africa: Madalene Richardson, Paul van Helden, Rob Warren, Nulda Beyers (Stellenbosch University, Cape Town); Sudan: Ghada Sharaf-Eldin (National Health Laboratory, Khartoum); Zimbabwe: Philippa Easterbrook, Shahed Murad, Francis Drobniewski (King’s College London, UK); Cuba: Raul Diaz (Instituto Pedro Kourí, Havana); United States: Barry Kreiswirth (International Center for Public Health, Newark, NJ); Midori Kato-Maeda, Elizabeth Fair, Sebastien Gagneux, Peter Small (Stanford University, Stanford, CA); Argentina: Nora Morcillo (Reference Laboratory of Buenos Aires Tuberculosis Control Program) Angel Cataldi (National Institute of Agricultural Technology); Brazil: Lucilaine Ferrazoli (Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Sao Paulo); India: Kristin Kremer (RIVM), P. Seth (All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi); Bangladesh: Leen Rigouts, Isdore Chola Shamputa (Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium); Indonesia: Reinout van Crevel (University Medical Center Nijmegen, the Netherlands); Malaysia: Jeremy Dale (University of Surrey, Guildford, UK); Thailand: Wolfgang Prodinger (Medizinische Universität Innsbruck, Austria), Porntip Bunyaratevej (Mahidol University, Bangkok); China: James Douglas (University of Hawaii); Li Weimin (Beijing Tuberculosis and Chest Tumor Institution), Kristin Kremer (RIVM); K.M. Kam (Tuberculosis Reference Laboratory, Hong Kong); Japan: Ritsuko Ohata (Okayama Prefectural Institute for Environmental Science and Public Health); Mongolia: N. Naranbat (National Center for Communicable Diseases, Ulaanbaatar); Vietnam: Dang Duc Anh (National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi); Mai Huyen, Nguyen Thi Ngoc Lan (Ho Chi Minh City); Taiwan: Ruwen Jou (Center for Disease Control, Taipei).

Main Article

1Analysis and writing committee: Judith R. Glynn, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK; Kristin Kremer, RIVM, Bilthoven, the Netherlands; Martien W. Borgdorff, Royal Netherlands Tuberculosis Association (KNCV) Tuberculosis Foundation, The Hague, the Netherlands; Mar Pujades Rodriguez, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK; and Dick van Soolingen, RIVM, Bilthoven, the Netherlands.

2The key contacts who contributed the data are listed as follows: Austria: Wolfgang Prodinger (Medizinische Universität Innsbruck); Denmark: Troels Lillebaek (Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen); Finland: Hanna Soini, Petri Ruutu, (National Public Health Institute, Helsinki); France: Cristina Gutierrez, Veronique Vincent (Institut Pasteur, Paris); Beate Heym, Veronique Friocourt (Hôpital Ambroise Paré, Boulogne-Billancourt); Isabelle Fredenucci, Jean-Pierre Flandrois (Centre Hospitalier Lyon-Sud, Lyon); Germany: Stefan Niemann (National Reference Centre for Mycobacteria, Forschungszentrum Borstel, Hamburg), Roland Diel (School of Public Health, University of Düsseldorf); Italy: Stefano Bonora (Università di Verona); Leonardo A Sechi, Stephania Zanetti (Università di Sassari); Carlo Garzelli (Università di Pisa); the Netherlands: Martien Borgdorff (KNCV Tuberculosis Foundation) Petra de Haas, Kristin Kremer, Dick van Soolingen (RIVM); Spain: Montserrat Ruiz, Juan Carlos Rodríguez, Gloria Royo (Universidad Miguel Hernández, Elche); Ana Pérez Meixeira, Jenaro Astray (Public Health Institute Getafe, Madrid), Juana Cacho, Amador Ramos (Hospital Universitario de Getafe); Maria Jose Iglesias (University of Zaragoza), Sofia Samper (Hospital Universitario Miguel Servet, Zaragoza); United Kingdom: Andrew Hayward, John Watson, Francis Drobniewski (Health Protection Agency, London); Jeremy Dale (University of Surrey) on behalf of the Steering Committee, Molecular Epidemiology of Tuberculosis in London; Sweden: Malin Ridell, Liselott Svensson (Institute of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Göteborg University); Czech Republic: Milan Kubin (Institute of Hygiene of the City of Prague); Estonia: Annika Krüüner (Tartu University, Estonia, and Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden); Russia: Olga Toungoussova (University of Oslo, Norway), Dominique Caugant (Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway), Andrey Mariandyshev (Northern State Medical University, Archangel): Olga Narvaskaya, Igor Mokrousov (St. Petersburg Pasteur Institute), Tatjana Otten, Boris Vyshnevskiy (Research Institute of Phthisiopulmonology, St. Petersburg); Iran: Mehrnoosh Doroudchi (Shiraz University of Medical Sciences); Cameroon: Sara Ngo Niobe-Eyangoh (Centre Pasteur du Cameroun, Yaoundé); Ethiopia: Judith Bruchfeld (Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control, Solna); Guinea Bissau: Tuija Koivula, Gunilla Kallenius (Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control, Solna); Malawi: Amelia Crampin, Judith Glynn (London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK) on behalf of The Karonga Prevention Study (Chilumba, Malawi); South Africa: Madalene Richardson, Paul van Helden, Rob Warren, Nulda Beyers (Stellenbosch University, Cape Town); Sudan: Ghada Sharaf-Eldin (National Health Laboratory, Khartoum); Zimbabwe: Philippa Easterbrook, Shahed Murad, Francis Drobniewski (King’s College London, UK); Cuba: Raul Diaz (Instituto Pedro Kourí, Havana); United States: Barry Kreiswirth (International Center for Public Health, Newark, NJ); Midori Kato-Maeda, Elizabeth Fair, Sebastien Gagneux, Peter Small (Stanford University, Stanford, CA); Argentina: Nora Morcillo (Reference Laboratory of Buenos Aires Tuberculosis Control Program) Angel Cataldi (National Institute of Agricultural Technology); Brazil: Lucilaine Ferrazoli (Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Sao Paulo); India: Kristin Kremer (RIVM), P. Seth (All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi); Bangladesh: Leen Rigouts, Isdore Chola Shamputa (Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium); Indonesia: Reinout van Crevel (University Medical Center Nijmegen, the Netherlands); Malaysia: Jeremy Dale (University of Surrey, Guildford, UK); Thailand: Wolfgang Prodinger (Medizinische Universität Innsbruck, Austria), Porntip Bunyaratevej (Mahidol University, Bangkok); China: James Douglas (University of Hawaii); Li Weimin (Beijing Tuberculosis and Chest Tumor Institution), Kristin Kremer (RIVM); K.M. Kam (Tuberculosis Reference Laboratory, Hong Kong); Japan: Ritsuko Ohata (Okayama Prefectural Institute for Environmental Science and Public Health); Mongolia: N. Naranbat (National Center for Communicable Diseases, Ulaanbaatar); Vietnam: Dang Duc Anh (National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi); Mai Huyen, Nguyen Thi Ngoc Lan (Ho Chi Minh City); Taiwan: Ruwen Jou (Center for Disease Control, Taipei).

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