Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to site content
CDC Home

Volume 12, Number 5—May 2006
THEME ISSUE
Tuberculosis Special Section

Research

Beijing/W Genotype Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Drug Resistance

European Concerted Action on New Generation Genetic Markers and Techniques for the Epidemiology and Control of Tuberculosis
Author affiliations: *RIVM, Bilthoven, the Netherlands

Main Article

Table A2

Proportion of tuberculosis cases caused by the Beijing genotype in different studies

Study Period Overall Beijing/total (%) Excluding immigrants,*
Beijing/total (%)
Western Europe
Austria: western 1993–2004 12/895 (1.3) 7/673 (1.0)
Denmark: entire 1992–2001 96/3,844 (2.5) 17/1,659 (1.0)
Finland: entire 2000–2002 23/1,246 (1.9) 13/1,119 (1.2)
France
Paris area 1995 3/272 (1.1) 0/91 (0.0)
Paris 2001–2003 5/66 (7.6) 1/22 (4.6)
Lyon 2003 3/85 (3.5) 1/31 (3.2)
Germany: Hamburg 2001 6/178 (3.4) 1/80 (1.3)
Italy
Verona 1996–1997 2/158 (1.3) 0/131 (0.0)
Sardinia 1997–1998 2/350 (0.6) 0/28 (0.0)
Tuscany 2002 7/245 (2.9) 2/153 (1.2)
Netherlands: entire 1993–2002 522/8,510 (6.1) 202/3,469 (5.8)
Spain
Elche 1993–1999 0/146 (0.0)
Madrid 1992–2001 0/507 (0.0) 0/484 (0.0)
Zaragoza 1993–1995 2/569 (0.4) 0/544 (0.0)
Sweden: western 1999–2002 11/212 (5.2) 3/77 (3.9)
United Kingdom
Inner London 1993 18/547 (3.3) 5/164 (3.0)
London 1995–1997 108/2,490 (4.3) 10/273 (3.7)
Central and Eastern Europe
Czech Republic
Prague 1998 2/111 (1.8) 1/104 (1.0)
South Moravia 1998 5/120 (4.2) 0/114 (0.0)
Estonia: entire 1994 61/209 (29.2) 61/209 (29.2)
Russia
St. Petersburg 1999–2001 133/236 (56.4) 133/236 (56.4)
Archangel 1998–1999 54/119 (45.4)
North Africa and Middle East
Iran: several areas 1995–1997 10/101 (9.9) 6/81 (7.4)
Sub-Saharan Africa
Cameroon†: western region 1997–1998 0/456 (0.0) 0/456 (0.0)
Ethiopia: Addis Ababa 1996 0/121 (0.0) 0/121 (0.0)
Guinea Bissau: Bissau 1989–1993 1/229 (0.4) 1/221 (0.5)
Malawi: Karonga District 1996–2003 44/1,030 (4.3) 38/785 (4.8)
South Africa: Cape Town 1992–1998 140/847 (16.5) 140/847 (16.5)
Sudan: Khartoum 1998–1999 0/49 (0.0) 0/48 (0.0)
Zimbabwe: Harare 1997 4/214 (1.9) 4/212 (1.9)
North America
United States
New Jersey 1999 29/382 (7.6) 15/151 (9.9)
San Francisco 1998–2000 135/492 (27.4) 12/109 (11.0)
Caribbean
Cuba
Outside Havana 1994–1995 22/160 (13.8) 22/160 (13.8)
Havana 1997–1998 4/51 (7.8) 4/51 (7.8)
Latin America
Argentina: Buenos Aires 1998–2001 5/612 (0.8) 5/582 (0.9)
Brazil: São Paulo 2000–2001 4/420 (1.0) 3/382 (0.8)
Indian subcontinent
India: Delhi 1995–1996 1/83 (1.2)
Bangladesh: Mymensingh 2000–2002 7/97 (7.2)
Southeast Asia
Indonesia: Jakarta 1998–1999 32/91 (35.2) 32/91 (35.2)
Malaysia: Sample 1993–1994 71/426 (16.7) 65/388 (16.8)
Thailand: Bangkok 1998–2000 98/204 (48.0) 98/204 (48.0)
Vietnam
Hanoi 1998–1999 37/64 (57.8)
Ho Chi Minh City 1998–1999 263/499 (52.7)
Ho Chi Minh City 1998–2000 34/75 (45.3) 34/75 (45.3)
Tien Giang 2003 28/60 (46.7) 28/60 (46.7)
East Asia
China
Shanghai and other areas 1994–1995 40/59 (67.8)
Henan 2000–2001 36/52 (69.2) 36/52 (69.2)
Hong Kong: Hong Kong 1998–1999 356/500 (71.2)
Japan: Okayama 2000–2002 103/142 (72.5) 103/142 (72.5)
Mongolia: entire 1998–1999 97/168 (57.7) 97/168 (57.7)
Taiwan: entire 2002 187/421 (44.4)

*Immigration status not known for all patients.
†The spoligotype of 1 isolate in this study had only spacers 40–43, but other genetic markers showed it to be Mycobacterium africanum.

Main Article

1Analysis and writing committee: Judith R. Glynn, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK; Kristin Kremer, RIVM, Bilthoven, the Netherlands; Martien W. Borgdorff, Royal Netherlands Tuberculosis Association (KNCV) Tuberculosis Foundation, The Hague, the Netherlands; Mar Pujades Rodriguez, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK; and Dick van Soolingen, RIVM, Bilthoven, the Netherlands.

2The key contacts who contributed the data are listed as follows: Austria: Wolfgang Prodinger (Medizinische Universität Innsbruck); Denmark: Troels Lillebaek (Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen); Finland: Hanna Soini, Petri Ruutu, (National Public Health Institute, Helsinki); France: Cristina Gutierrez, Veronique Vincent (Institut Pasteur, Paris); Beate Heym, Veronique Friocourt (Hôpital Ambroise Paré, Boulogne-Billancourt); Isabelle Fredenucci, Jean-Pierre Flandrois (Centre Hospitalier Lyon-Sud, Lyon); Germany: Stefan Niemann (National Reference Centre for Mycobacteria, Forschungszentrum Borstel, Hamburg), Roland Diel (School of Public Health, University of Düsseldorf); Italy: Stefano Bonora (Università di Verona); Leonardo A Sechi, Stephania Zanetti (Università di Sassari); Carlo Garzelli (Università di Pisa); the Netherlands: Martien Borgdorff (KNCV Tuberculosis Foundation) Petra de Haas, Kristin Kremer, Dick van Soolingen (RIVM); Spain: Montserrat Ruiz, Juan Carlos Rodríguez, Gloria Royo (Universidad Miguel Hernández, Elche); Ana Pérez Meixeira, Jenaro Astray (Public Health Institute Getafe, Madrid), Juana Cacho, Amador Ramos (Hospital Universitario de Getafe); Maria Jose Iglesias (University of Zaragoza), Sofia Samper (Hospital Universitario Miguel Servet, Zaragoza); United Kingdom: Andrew Hayward, John Watson, Francis Drobniewski (Health Protection Agency, London); Jeremy Dale (University of Surrey) on behalf of the Steering Committee, Molecular Epidemiology of Tuberculosis in London; Sweden: Malin Ridell, Liselott Svensson (Institute of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Göteborg University); Czech Republic: Milan Kubin (Institute of Hygiene of the City of Prague); Estonia: Annika Krüüner (Tartu University, Estonia, and Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden); Russia: Olga Toungoussova (University of Oslo, Norway), Dominique Caugant (Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway), Andrey Mariandyshev (Northern State Medical University, Archangel): Olga Narvaskaya, Igor Mokrousov (St. Petersburg Pasteur Institute), Tatjana Otten, Boris Vyshnevskiy (Research Institute of Phthisiopulmonology, St. Petersburg); Iran: Mehrnoosh Doroudchi (Shiraz University of Medical Sciences); Cameroon: Sara Ngo Niobe-Eyangoh (Centre Pasteur du Cameroun, Yaoundé); Ethiopia: Judith Bruchfeld (Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control, Solna); Guinea Bissau: Tuija Koivula, Gunilla Kallenius (Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control, Solna); Malawi: Amelia Crampin, Judith Glynn (London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK) on behalf of The Karonga Prevention Study (Chilumba, Malawi); South Africa: Madalene Richardson, Paul van Helden, Rob Warren, Nulda Beyers (Stellenbosch University, Cape Town); Sudan: Ghada Sharaf-Eldin (National Health Laboratory, Khartoum); Zimbabwe: Philippa Easterbrook, Shahed Murad, Francis Drobniewski (King’s College London, UK); Cuba: Raul Diaz (Instituto Pedro Kourí, Havana); United States: Barry Kreiswirth (International Center for Public Health, Newark, NJ); Midori Kato-Maeda, Elizabeth Fair, Sebastien Gagneux, Peter Small (Stanford University, Stanford, CA); Argentina: Nora Morcillo (Reference Laboratory of Buenos Aires Tuberculosis Control Program) Angel Cataldi (National Institute of Agricultural Technology); Brazil: Lucilaine Ferrazoli (Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Sao Paulo); India: Kristin Kremer (RIVM), P. Seth (All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi); Bangladesh: Leen Rigouts, Isdore Chola Shamputa (Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium); Indonesia: Reinout van Crevel (University Medical Center Nijmegen, the Netherlands); Malaysia: Jeremy Dale (University of Surrey, Guildford, UK); Thailand: Wolfgang Prodinger (Medizinische Universität Innsbruck, Austria), Porntip Bunyaratevej (Mahidol University, Bangkok); China: James Douglas (University of Hawaii); Li Weimin (Beijing Tuberculosis and Chest Tumor Institution), Kristin Kremer (RIVM); K.M. Kam (Tuberculosis Reference Laboratory, Hong Kong); Japan: Ritsuko Ohata (Okayama Prefectural Institute for Environmental Science and Public Health); Mongolia: N. Naranbat (National Center for Communicable Diseases, Ulaanbaatar); Vietnam: Dang Duc Anh (National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi); Mai Huyen, Nguyen Thi Ngoc Lan (Ho Chi Minh City); Taiwan: Ruwen Jou (Center for Disease Control, Taipei).

Top of Page

USA.gov: The U.S. Government's Official Web PortalDepartment of Health and Human Services
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention   1600 Clifton Rd. Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
800-CDC-INFO (800-232-4636) TTY: (888) 232-6348 - Contact CDC–INFO