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Volume 12, Number 5—May 2006
THEME ISSUE
Tuberculosis Special Section

Research

Tuberculosis Transmission Attributable to Close Contacts and HIV Status, Malawi

Amelia C. Crampin*†, Judith R. Glynn*Comments to Author , Hamidou Traore*, Malcolm D. Yates‡, Lorren Mwaungulu†, Michael Mwenebabu†, Steven D. Chaguluka†, Sian Floyd*, Francis Drobniewski‡, and Paul E.M. Fine*
Author affiliations: *London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom; †Karonga Prevention Study, Chilumba, Malawi; ‡Health Protection Agency National Mycobacterium Reference Laboratory, London, United Kingdom

Main Article

Table 2

Probability of transmission from a smear-positive putative source contact (PSC) being confirmed by restriction fragment length polymorphism, according to characteristics of case and PSC

Characteristic Confirmed/
total pairs (%) p Odds ratio, 95% confidence interval (adjusted for closeness of contact)
Closeness of contact
Same household 22/50 (44.0) 3.6 (1.4–9.3)
Close family, not household 17/38 (44.7) 3.5 (1.5–8.6)
Other 10/55 (18.2) 0.006 Referent
Time between diagnosis of disease in PSC and case-patient (mo)
<12 21/62 (33.9) Referent
12–23 13/36 (36.1) 1.1 (0.44–2.6)
>24 15/45 (33.3) 1.0 0.88 (0.37–2.1)
Age of case-patient (y)
<30 20/53 (37.7) Referent
30–44 23/67 (34.3) 0.72 (0.32–1.6)
>45 6/23 (26.1) 0.3 (trend) 0.48 (0.17–1.3)
Age of PSC (y)
<30 20/49 (40.8) Referent
30–44 21/63 (33.3) 0.93 (0.42–2.1)
>45 8/31 (25.8) 0.2 (trend) 0.59 (0.19–1.8)
Sex of case-patient
Female 28/81 (34.6) 0.9 Referent
Male 21/62 (33.9) 1.2 (0.56–2.4)
Sex of PSC
Female 33/75 (44.0) 0.01 Referent
Male 16/68 (23.5) 0.46 (0.21–0.99)
HIV status of case-patient
HIV negative 16/37 (43.2) 0.1 Referent
HIV positive 19/67 (28.4) 0.55 (0.23–1.3)
HIV status of PSC
HIV negative 27/59 (45.8) 0.01 Referent
HIV positive 15/62 (24.2) 0.32 (0.14–0.74)
Drug resistance of PSC
None 42/129 (32.6) 0.2 Referent
Isoniazid resistant 7/14 (50.0) 2.1 (0.66–6.8)
Smear positivity of PSC
1+ 5/18 (27.8) Referent
2+ 12/36 (33.3) 0.94 (0.26–3.5)
3+ 12/43 (27.9) 0.89 (0.25–3.2)
4+ 20/46 (43.5) 0.4 1.6 (0.46–5.4)

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