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Volume 12, Number 6—June 2006

Research

Multidrug-resistant Commensal Escherichia coli in Children, Peru and Bolivia

Alessandro Bartoloni*Comments to Author , Lucia Pallecchi†, Marta Benedetti*, Connie Fernandez‡, Yolanda Vallejos§, Elisa Guzman¶, Ana Liz Villagran§, Antonia Mantella*, Chiara Lucchetti†, Filippo Bartalesi*, Marianne Strohmeyer*, Angela Bechini*, Herlan Gamboa§, Hugo Rodríguez‡, Torkel Falkenberg#, Göran Kronvall#, Eduardo Gotuzzo**, Franco Paradisi*, and Gian Maria Rossolini†
Author affiliations: *Università di Firenze, Florence, Italy; †Università di Siena, Siena, Italy; ‡Hospital Apoyo Yurimaguas, Yurimaguas–Loreto, Peru; §Servicio Departamental de Salud Santa Cruz, Camiri, Bolivia; ¶Hospital Moyobamba, Moyobamba–San Martin, Peru; #Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; **Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru

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Table 1

Prevalence, expressed as percentage, of healthy children carrying antimicrobial drug–resistant Escherichia coli as part of their commensal flora and of children in whom resistant E. coli constituted the predominant flora*†

Drug Bolivia
Peru




Camiri Villa Montes p value Yurimaguas Moyobamba p value Bolivia, subtotal Peru, subtotal Total p value
Ampicillin 98 (95) 96 (87) <0.05 92 (76) 93 (83) NS 97 (91) 92 (80) 95 (85) <0.001
SXT‡ 98 (94) 95 (86) <0.05 89 (72) 93 (83) <0.05 96 (90) 91 (77) 94 (84) <0.001
Tetracycline 96 (91) 92 (82) <0.05 89 (71) 93 (81) <0.05 94 (86) 91 (76) 93 (81) <0.05
Streptomycin 96 (89) 88 (79) <0.001 71 (50) 86 (66) <0.001 92 (84) 79 (58) 82 (68) <0.001
Chloramphenicol 74 (58) 65 (40) <0.001 69 (42) 72 (48) NS 70 (49) 71 (45) 70 (47) NS
Nalidixic acid 44 (25) 29 (13) <0.001 27 (8) 41 (18) <0.001 36 (19) 38 (13) 35 (16) NS
Kanamycin 37 (20) 31 (12) <0.05 22 (8) 23 (9) NS 34 (16) 22 (9) 28 (12) <0.001
Gentamicin 28 (16) 18 (10) <0.001 19 (9) 21 (10) NS 23 (13) 20 (10) 21 (11) <0.05
Ciprofloxacin 21 (10) 10 (4) <0.001 16 (5) 25 (9) <0.001 16 (7) 21 (7) 18 (7) <0.001
Amikacin 0 0.1 (0) NA 1 (0.4) 0.4 (0.3) NA 0.1 (0.1) 1 (0.3) 0.4 (0.2) NA
Ceftriaxone 0.1 (0) 0.1 (0.1) NA 0.3 (0) 0.1 (0.1) NA 0.1 (0.1) 0.1 (0.1) 0.1 (0.1) NA

*Inside parentheses: proportion of carriers in whom resistant E. coli constituted the predominant flora. NS, not significant; NA, not applicable.
†Number of children from whom samples were obtained: Camiri = 794; Villa Montes = 790; Yurimaguas = 797; Moyobamba = 793; Bolivia = 1,584; Peru = 1,590; and total = 3,174.
‡SXT, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole.

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