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Volume 12, Number 6—June 2006

Dispatch

Preventing Zoonotic Influenza Virus Infection

Alejandro Ramirez*†Comments to Author , Ana W. Capuano*, Debbie A. Wellman*, Kelly A. Lesher*, Sharon F. Setterquist*, and Gregory C. Gray*
Author affiliations: *University of Iowa College of Public Health, Iowa City, Iowa, USA; †Iowa State University College of Veterinary Medicine, Ames, Iowa, USA

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Table 2

Odds ratios for increased serologic response against swine H1N1 influenza virus by hemagglutination inhibition assay

Variable n Swine H1N1*
Titer >10, n (%) Titer >20, n (%) Bivariate OR (95% CI) Multivariate OR (95% CI)
Age group (y)
<29 40 3 (7.5) 1 (2.5) 1.2 (0.2–6.1) 3.5 (0.4–30.6)
29–42 46 3 (6.5) 1 (2.2) Reference Reference
>42 42 9 (22) 6 (14.6) 4.2 (1.1–16.8)† 6.1 (0.9–41.3)
Sex
Male 63 13 (21) 7 (11.3) 8.4 (1.8–38.7)† 7 (0.9–52.1)
Female 65 2 (3.1) 1 (1.5) Reference Reference
Swine exposure
Swine workers occasionally or never use gloves 34 12 (35.3) 7 (20.6) 21 (4.4–100.8)† 30.3 (3.8–243.5)†
Swine workers usually or always use gloves 14 1 (7.1) 0 2.8 (0.2–34.2) 2.4 (0.1–40.9)
Controls not exposed to swine 79 2 (2.6) 1 (1.3) Reference Reference
Smoked >5 packs of cigarettes in past year
Yes 14 4 (28.6) 3 (21.4) 4 (1.1–14.5)† 18.7 (2.5–141.3)†
No 114 11 (9.7) 5 (4.4) Reference Reference
Received 2002–03 influenza vaccine
Yes 36 4 (11.4) 1 (2.9) 1 (0.3–3.4)
No 91 10 (11) 7 (7.7) Reference
Received 2003–04 influenza vaccine
Yes 43 6 (14.3) 3 (7.1) 1.6 (0.5–4.8) 16.3 (2.5–107.4)†
No 84 8 (9.5) 5 (6) Reference Reference
Elevated titer human H1N1 (>40)
Positive 39 2 (5.3) 1 (2.6) 0.3 (0.1–1.5)
Negative 89 13 (14.6) 7 (7.9) Reference

*OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval; by using proportional odds model, these titers were grouped: <10, 10, >10.
†Significant odds for increased serologic response, p<0.05.

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