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Volume 12, Number 8—August 2006

Research

Macrolide Resistance in Adults with Bacteremic Pneumococcal Pneumonia

Joshua P. Metlay*†Comments to Author , Neil O. Fishman†, Marshall M. Joffe†, Michael J. Kallan†, Jesse L. Chittams†, and Paul H. Edelstein†
Author affiliations: *Philadelphia Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA; †University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Main Article

Table 1

Demographic and clinical characteristics of cases and controls*

Characteristic Macrolide resistant,
n = 76 (%) Macrolide susceptible,
n = 368 (%) OR 95% CI p value
Demographic factors
Age >65 y 40 (53) 163 (44) 1.4 0.9–2.3 0.19
Male sex 36 (48) 169 (46) 1.1 0.7–1.8 0.73
White race 57 (76) 236 (64) 1.8 1.0–3.1 0.048
Hispanic ethnicity 6 (8) 10 (2) 3.1 1.1–8.8 0.026
Nursing home residence 4 (5) 23 (6) 0.8 0.2–2.6 0.71
Annual income >US $25,000 30 (55) 136 (49) 1.2 0.7–2.2 0.46
More than high-school education 53 (72) 236 (64) 1.4 0.8–2.4 0.24
Children (< 6 y) in home 12 (16) 62 (17) 0.9 0.4–1.9 0.82
Philadelphia residence 29 (39) 176 (48) 0.7 0.4–1.2 0.15
Clinical factors
HIV infection 5 (7) 45 (12) 0.5 0.2–1.3 0.17
Active smoking 25 (33) 107 (29) 1.2 0.7–2.1 0.45
Asthma 19 (25) 73 (17) 1.4 0.8–2.5 0.28
Chronic bronchitis/emphysema 23 (31) 68 (18) 2.0 1.1–3.4 0.017
Coronary artery disease 9 (12) 67 (18) 0.6 0.3–1.3 0.20
Congestive heart failure 8 (11) 72 (20) 0.5 0.2–1.1 0.069
History of stroke 2 (3) 43 (12) 0.2 0.1–0.9 0.019
Diabetes mellitus 12 (17) 89 (24) 0.7 0.4–1.3 0.20
Chronic renal disease 3 (4) 40 (11) 0.3 0.1–1.1 0.068
Active cancer 15 (20) 51 (14) 1.6 0.8–3.0 0.17
Chronic liver disease 7 (9) 43 (12) 0.8 0.3–1.8 0.56
Prior influenza vaccination† 46 (61) 178 (48) 1.7 1.0–2.8 0.039
Prior pneumococcal vaccination‡ 35 (47) 198 (54) 0.8 0.5–1.2 0.27

*OR, odds radio; CI, confidence interval. p value based on χ2 test.
†In the 12 months preceding the date of infection.
‡At any time before the date of infection.

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