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Volume 12, Number 9—September 2006

Dispatch

Human Metapneumovirus and Respiratory Syncytial Virus Disease in Children, Yemen

Najla Al-Sonboli*†, Charles A. Hart‡, Nasher Al-Aghbari*†, Ahmed Al-Ansi†, Omar Ashoor§, and Luis E. Cuevas*Comments to Author 
Author affiliations: *Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom; †Sana'a University, Sana'a, Yemen; ‡University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom; §Al-Sabeen Hospital for Women and Children, Sana'a, Yemen

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Table

Characteristics of children with mild and severe hypoxia caused by infection with RSV and HMPV*

Characteristic RSV hypoxia
HMPV hypoxia
Mild (n = 34) Severe (n = 232) p value Mild (n = 20) Severe (n = 46) p value
Male 22 (65) 154 (66) 0.4 17 (85) 30 (65) 0.08
Mean (SD) age, mo. 7.9 (5.6) 4.2 (4.8) <0.001 9.1 (5.9) 5.7 (5.4) 0.02
Preterm 1 (3) 11 (5) 0.5 1 (5) 3 (7) 0.6
Height-for-age Z scores <–2 13 (38) 73 (32) 0.2 12 (60) 19 (41.3) 0.08
Not exclusively breastfed 12 (35) 136 (59) 0.01 15 (75) 23 (50) 0.1
Incomplete vaccinations 7 (21) 178 (77) <0.001 4 (20) 30 (65) <0.001
Recurrent ARI 6 (18) 40 (17) 0.4 2 (10) 15 (33) 0.04
Recurrent wheeze 1 (3) 12 (5) 0.4 0 (0) 5 (11) 0.1
Eczema 1 (3) 11 (5) 0.5 1 (5) 1 (2) 0.5
Asthma 1 (3) 1 (0.4) 0.2 0 3 (7) 0.3
CHD 0 2 (1) 0.7 0 0 0.3
Family member with ARI 18 (53) 165 (71) 0.02 7 (35) 28 (61) 0.03
Family member with allergies 3 (9) 29 (13) 0.3 4 (20) 4 (9) 0.1
Family member with asthma 5 (15) 24 (10) 0.2 1 (5) 5 (11) 0.4
Family member with eczema 3 (9) 11 (5) 0.2 1 (5) 5 (11) 0.4
Smoker at home 9 (27) 120 (52) 0.002 10 (50) 28 (61) 0.2
Indoor animals 9 (27) 97 (42) 0.04 4 (20) 15 (33) 0.2
Cows 1 (3) 52 (22) 0.003 0 (0) 9 (20) 0.02
Goats 6 (18) 69 (30) 0.07 1 (5) 7 (15) 0.2
Chicken 3 (9) 39 (17) 0.1 2 (10) 7 (15) 0.4
Cats 3 (9) 26 (11) 0.4 3 (15 ) 7 (15) 0.6
Dogs 0 8 (3) 0.3 0 0 0.2
Donkeys 0 32 (10) 0.03 0 4 (9) 0.2
Outdoor animals 2 (6) 88 (38) <0.001 1 (5) 14 (30) 0.01
Private source of water 11 (32) 138 (60) 0.002 5 (25) 22 (47) 0.04
Cooking fuel other than gas 2 (6) 128 (55) <0.001 2 (10) 23 (50) 0.001

*Values are no. (%) unless otherwise indicated. RSV, respiratory syncytial virus; HMPV, human metapneumovirus; SD, standard deviation; ARI, acute respiratory illness; CHD, congenital heart disease.

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