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Volume 13, Number 10—October 2007
THEME ISSUE
Global Poverty and Human Development

Research

HIV and Tuberculosis in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, 1997–2002

Tran Ngoc Buu*†, Rein M.G.J. Houben‡§1, Hoang Thi Quy*, Nguyen Thi Ngoc Lan*, Martien W. Borgdorff†‡, and Frank G.J. Cobelens†‡Comments to Author 
Author affiliations: *Pham Ngoc Thach TB and Lung Disease Hospital, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam; †Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; ‡KNCV Tuberculosis Foundation, The Hague, the Netherlands; §University Medical Center St Radboud, Nijmegen, the Netherlands;

Main Article

Table 1

HIV prevalence in tuberculosis patients in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, 1997–2002*

Variable 1997–1998, % (n/N) 1999–2000, % (n/N) 2001–2002, % (n/N) p value†
Study population 1.5 (38/2,476) 2.9 (47/1,617) 9.0 (144/1,608) <0.001
Age, y
<24 0.6 (2/342) 5.9 (14/239) 19.9 (53/267) <0.001
25–34 2.0 (14/711) 3.1 (14/452) 14.4 (65/450) <0.001
35–44 2.4 (17/719) 2.4 (11/460) 3.6 (16/439) 0.100
45–54 0.7 (5/704) 1.7 (8/466) 2.2 (10/452) 0.020
Sex
Male 2.0 (35/1,749) 3.8 (43/1,139) 11.6 (134/1,158) <0.001
Female
0.4 (3/727)
0.8 (4/478)
2.2 (10/450)
0.001
Marital status
Married 1.2 (19/1,538) 1.4 (14/989) 4.7 (46/975) <0.001
Single 1.8 (14/775) 5.4 (28/521) 15.9 (87/549) <0.001
Separated 3.1 (5/163) 4.7 (5/107) 13.1 (11/84) 0.010
Education level
Illiterate 1.1 (3/281) 2.0 (3/151) 9.4 (10/106) 0.001
Primary 1.4 (18/1298) 3.8 (18/478) 10.7 (55/512) <0.001
Secondary or higher 1.9 (17/897) 2.6 (26/988) 8.0 (79/990) <0.001
Employment status
Employed 0.9 (3/334) 2.3 (7/300) 5.8 (21/362) <0.001
Self-employed 1.6 (22/1376) 2.9 (26/909) 8.6 (84/979) <0.001
Unemployed
1.7 (13/766)
3.4 (14/408)
14.6 (39/267)
<0.001
Risk group
Injection drug use 31.3 (5/16) 47.1 (8/17) 95.4 (41/43) <0.001
Other 1.3 (33/2,460) 2.4 (39/1,600) 6.6 (103/1,565) <0.001
Patient history
New case 1.6 (33/2,018) 2.9 (39/1,338) 9.5 (129/1,358) <0.001
Relapsed case 0.5 (1/223) 4.1 (5/122) 5.0 (6/119) 0.002
Other‡ 1.7 (4/235) 1.9 (3/157) 6.9 (9/131) 0.030
Tuberculosis type
Smear-positive 1.5 (27/1,799) 3.3 (38/1,145) 8.3 (91/1,100) <0.001
Smear-negative 0.3 (1/362) 1.5 (4/260) 5.2 (10/194) <0.001
Extrapulmonary 3.2 (10/315) 2.4 (5/212) 13.7 (43/314) <0.001

*%, percentage of HIV-positive patients; n, no. HIV-infected patients; N, total no. patients.
†p value for Cuzick nonparametric test for trend across time periods.
‡Includes previously treated tuberculosis patients who did not respond to treatment, defaulted, or received their first treatment outside the National TB Program.

Main Article

1Current affiliation: London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK

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