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Volume 13, Number 10—October 2007

Dispatch

Human Metapneumovirus Infection among Children, Bangladesh

W. Abdullah Brooks*†Comments to Author , Dean D. Erdman‡, Pauline Terebuh§, Alexander Klimov‡, Doli Goswami*, Amina Tahia Sharmeen*, Tasnim Azim*, Stephen P. Luby*, Carolyn Bridges‡, and Robert Breiman¶
Author affiliations: *ICDDR,B, Dhaka, Bangladesh; †Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA; ‡Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; §Georgia Department of Human Resources, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; ¶Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Nairobi, Kenya;

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Table 2

Demographic and clinical characteristics of children <13 years of age presenting with fever, Kamalampur, Bangladesh, December 2000–December 2001*

Variables† HMPV positive 
(N = 20) HMPV negative 
(N = 87) Relative odds 
(95% CI) p value‡
Mean age, y§ (SD, 95% CI) 4.5 (2.6; 3.2–5.7) 4.5 (3.1; 3.9–5.2) 0.951
Mean age for 0–4 age range, y§ (SD, 95% CI) 2.9 (1.4; 2.1–3.8) 2.3 (1.2; 2.0–2.7) 0.113
Mean age for 5–12 age range, y§ (SD, 95% CI)
7.3 (1.9; 5.5–9.0)
7.7 (1.8; 7.1–8.4)

0.556
Children <5 y, no. (%) 13 (65.0) 52 (59.8) 1.25 (0.41–4.08) 0.801
Male gender, no. (%) 9 (45.0) 49 (56.3) 0.63 (0.21–1.89) 0.457
Duration of fever prior to clinic,§ d (SD, 95% CI)
3.1 (0.8; 2.7–3.5)
3.1 (1.7; 2.7–3.4)

0.983
Symptoms
Headache, no. (%) 8 (40.0) 34 (39.1) 1.04 (0.33–3.10) 1.000
Body pain, no. (%) 4 (20.0) 25 (28.7) 0.62 (0.14–2.20) 0.580
Rhinorrhea, no. (%) 16 (80.0) 60 (69.0) 1.80 (0.51–8.06) 0.419
Difficulty breathing, no. (%) 3 (15.0) 4 (4.6) 3.66 (0.48–23.48) 0.119
Normal activity/behavior, no. (%) 15 (75.0) 64 (73.6) 0.73 (0.22–2.20) 0.620
Fever,§ °C (SD, 95% CI) 39.2 (0.6; 39.0–39.5) 39.1 (0.6; 39.0–39.2) 0.899
High fever (>39°C), no. (%) 10 (50.0) 49 (56.3) 0.78 (0.26–2.32) 0.627
Respiratory rate§ (SD, 95% CI) 42 (11; 36–47) 41 (9; 39–43) 0.808
Crepitations (rales) or wheezing, no. (%) 11 (55.0) 28 (32.1) 2.57 (0.85–7.86) 0.072
Altered mental status,¶ no. (%) 5 (25.0) 8 (9.2) 3.29 (0.73–13.19) 0.065
Altered mental status¶ if <5 y#, no. (%)
5 (38.5)
6 (11.5)
4.79 (0.90–23.86)
0.035
Pneumonia/LRTI diagnosis, no. (%) 8 (40.0%) 14 (16.1) 3.48 (1.02–11.24) 0.029

*HPMV, human metapneumovirus; CI, confidence interval; SD, standard deviation; LRTI, lower respiratory tract illness.
†Categorical variables report N persons (percent of persons with characteristic in each group). Compared by 2 x 2 table, odds ratio with 95% CI.
‡2-tailed Fisher exact text.
§Continuous variables. Means compared by using Student t test.
¶Irritability, lethargy.
#N = 65 children <5 y.

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