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Volume 13, Number 3—March 2007

Perspective

Bird Migration Routes and Risk for Pathogen Dispersion into Western Mediterranean Wetlands

Elsa Jourdain*†Comments to Author , Michel Gauthier-Clerc*, Dominique Bicout†, and Philippe Sabatier†
Author affiliations: *Station Biologique de la Tour du Valat, Arles, France; †Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire de Lyon – Institut National de Recherche Agronomique, Marcy l'Etoile, France

Main Article

Table

Periods of major risk for pathogen introduction in the Camargue from sub-Saharan Africa, Siberia-Scandinavia, or continental Europe for all species, Anatidae species, and waders*

OriginSpeciesSpringSummerAutumnWinter
sub-Saharan AfricaAll+++(±)(–)
Waterfowl+/–(±)(–)
Waders+++(+)(–)
Scandinavia/SiberiaAll(±)(–)+++
Waterfowl(–)(–)++++
Waders(+)(±)++±
Continental EuropeAll(±)(–)+++
Waterfowl(–)(–)++++
Waders(+)(–)+++

*The risk is supposed to increase both with the number of species and the number of individual birds present in the Camargue (++, very high; +, high; ±, medium; –, low). In addition, the timing of migration matters since the introduction of pathogens from Africa (Eurasia) during the autumn (spring) migration is less likely because birds do not come directly from these areas. The corresponding risks are therefore in parentheses.

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