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Volume 13, Number 3—March 2007

Research

Surveillance of Influenza Virus A in Migratory Waterfowl in Northern Europe

Anders Wallensten*†, Vincent J. Munster‡, Neus Latorre-Margalef§, Mia Brytting¶, Johan Elmberg#, Ron A.M. Fouchier‡, Thord Fransson**, Paul D. Haemig§, Malin Karlsson¶, Åke Lundkvist¶, Albert D.M.E. Osterhaus‡, Martin Stervander††, Jonas Waldenström§‡‡, and Björn Olsen§§§Comments to Author 
Author affiliations: *Smedby Health Center, Kalmar, Sweden; †Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; ‡Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; §Kalmar University, Kalmar, Sweden; ¶Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control, Solna, Sweden; #Kristianstad University, Kristianstad, Sweden; **Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden; ††Ottenby Bird Observatory, Degerhamn, Sweden; ‡‡Lund University, Lund, Sweden; §§Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden;

Main Article

Table 4

Comparison of multiyear influenza A virus screening studies of ducks in North America (2), Germany (16) and Sweden (present study)*

Study regionSwedenGermanyNorth America
Prevalence during fall15.0% (in mallards)8.7%22.2%
Prevalence during spring4.0% (in mallards)No data0.03%
Most prevalent HA subtypesH4, H6, H7H4, H2, H1, H6, H7H6, H3, H4
HA subtypes not foundH9, H13–16H5, H12–16H13–16
Most prevalent NA subtypesN2, N6, N7N1, N3, N6N8, N2, N6
NA subtypes foundN1–9N1–9N1–9
Most prevalent subtype combinationsH4N6, H7N7, H6N2H2N3, H4N6, H1N1, H6N2, H7N7H3N8, H6N2, H4N6

*HA, hemagglutinin; NA,neuraminidase.

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