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Volume 13, Number 4—April 2007

Dispatch

Avian Influenza Viruses in Water Birds, Africa1

Nicolas Gaidet*Comments to Author , Tim Dodman†, Alexandre Caron*, Gilles Balança*, Stephanie Desvaux*, Flavie Goutard*, Giovanni Cattoli‡, François Lamarque§, Ward Hagemeijer†, and François Monicat*
Author affiliations: *Centre de Cooperation Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement , Montpellier, France; †Wetlands International, Wageningen, the Netherlands; ‡Viale dell’Università, Legnaro, Italy; §Office National de la Chasse et de la Faune Sauvage, Paris France;

Main Article

Table 1

Prevalence of avian Influenza virus in wild birds*

Bird group Species tested No. PCR positive, no. (%) Positive country
African ducks 9 species (total, including 4 named below) 1,455 41 (2.8)
Dendrocygna viduata 1,181 38 (3.2) TD, ET, ML, MR, NE, SN
Sarkidiornis melanotos 117 3 (2.6) ML, NE
D. bicolor 88 0

Plectropterus gambensis
32
0

Eurasian ducks 10 species 1,409 93 (6.6)
Anas querquedula 1,335 87 (6.5) TD, ML, MR, NE, SN
A. acuta 24 2 (8.3) ML
A. crecca 24 3 (12.5) MA

A. clypeata
6
1 (16.7)
MA
Eurasian waders 13 species 409 6 (1.5)
Philomachus pugnax 115 2 (1.7) ML
Tringa glareola 74 0
Calidris minuta 60 0
C. ferruginea 45 2 (4.4) TN
Himantopus himantopus 45 0
Gallinago gallinago 30 0

T. erythropus
23
2 (8.7)
ML
Rails 8 species 438 3 (0.7)
Porphyrio alleni 187 0
Amaurornis flavirostris 88 0
Fulica cristata 80 0
Gallinula chloropus 31 2 (6.5) ML

Porphyrio porphyrio
10
1 (10)
ML
Gulls 3 species 366 14 (3.8)
Larus genei 156 13 (8.3) SN
L. fuscus 129 1 (0.8) MR

L. melanocephalus
81
0

Terns 7 species 159 2 (1.3)

Sterna sp.†
150
2 (1.3)
MR
Cormorants 2 species 148 0

Phalacrocorax carbo
130
0

Other
36 species
196
0

Total 87 species 4,553 159 (3.5)

*Detected by reverse transcription–PCR (RT-PCR), for all RT-PCR–positive species and in species with >30 individuals sampled. Lower numbers in individual species are included in the total for each bird group. Countries where RT-PCR–positive samples were obtained are indicated (TD, Chad; ET, Ethiopia; ML, Mali; MR, Mauritania; NE, Niger; SN, Senegal; MA, Morocco; TN, Tunisia).
†Unidentified fresh dropping samples from a multispecies flock of Sterna caspia, S. maxima, and S. sandvicensis.

Main Article

1African Waterbird Ringing Scheme (AFRING), Oiseaux Migrateurs du Paléarctique Occidental (OMPO), Office National de la Chasse et de la Faune Sauvage (ONCFS) , Dutch Centre for Field Ornithology or Stichting Openbaar Voortgezet Onderwijs Noord (SOVON), and Wildfowl and Wetlands Trust (WWT).

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