Figure. Maximum likelihood (ML) 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic tree showing the placement of the genus Schineria (boldface) and the isolate ADV1107.05 (underlined) in the phylum Proteobacteria. To reconstruct this tree, we used the strain ADV1107.05 sequence (DQ906159, 1441 bp) and 49 sequences selected from the GenBank database: 38 among the 15 orders of the Gamma Proteobacteria, 6 for the Beta Proteobacteria, 2 for the Alpha Proteobacteria, 1 for Delta Proteobacteria, 1 for Epsilon Proteobacteria and Clostridium haemolyticum (used as the outgroup organism). Accession nos. are in brackets. Alignment was performed with ClustalW 1.83 (4). ML phylogenetic analysis was performed by using PHYML v2.4.4 (5) with the general time-reversible plus gamma distribution plus invariable site (GTR + Γ + I) model found to be most appropriate according to Akaike information criteria. Bootstrap values given at the nodes are estimated with 100 replicates. The scale bar indicates 0.3 substitutions per nucleotide position. Strain ADV4155.05 sequence (DQ906158, 1414 bp) is not reported because it was identical to ADV1107.05. Trees were also obtained by distance methods (JC69, F84, and GTR models, and neighbor-joining), by parsimony, and by Bayesian inference. In all instances the genus Schineria branched out of the Xanthomonadaceae cluster.