Genetic Characterization of HPAI (H5N1) Viruses from Poultry and Wild Vultures, Burkina Faso
Mariette F. Ducatez*, Zekiba Tarnagda†, Marc C. Tahita†, Adama Sow‡, Sebastien de Landtsheer*, Brandon Z. Londt§, Ian H. Brown§, Albert D.M.E. Osterhaus¶, Ron A.M. Fouchier¶, Jean-Bosco B. Ouedraogo†, and Claude P. Muller*
Author affiliations: *National Public Health Laboratory, Luxembourg; †Institut de Recherche en Sciences de la Santé, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso; ‡Veterinary Laboratories Agency, Surrey, England, United Kingdom; ‡Laboratoire National de l’Elevage, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso; §Veterinary Laboratories Agency, Surrey, England, United Kingdom; ¶Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands;
Figure 1. Phylogenetic tree for the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of African influenza A (H5N1) strains. The maximum likelihood method was used with 100 bootstraps and 3 jumbles (DNA-ML, Phylip version 3.6) to construct a tree for HA1 nucleotide sequences. Bootstrap values of major nodes are shown. The arrow points to the outgroup strain, A/goose/Guangdong/96. As detailed in the text, cluster C regroups highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) strains from Burkina Faso, northern Nigeria, Sudan, and Côte d'Ivoire; cluster A regroups strains from a southwestern Nigerian farm (coded BA) and Niger; and cluster B regroups strains from a southwestern Nigerian farm (coded SO) and Egypt. The scale bar represents ≈1% of nucleotide changes between close relatives.
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