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Volume 13, Number 5—May 2007

Dispatch

Tuberculosis Drug Resistance and HIV Infection, the Netherlands

Catharina Hendrika Haar*†, Frank G.J. Cobelens*‡Comments to Author , Nico A. Kalisvaart*, Jan J. van der Have†, Paul J.H.J. van Gerven*, and Dick van Soolingen§
Author affiliations: *KNCV Tuberculosis Foundation, The Hague, the Netherlands; †Municipal Health Service, Groningen, the Netherlands; ‡Academic Medial Centre, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; §National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, the Netherlands;

Main Article

Table 1

Association between HIV infection and primary drug resistance among new tuberculosis patients, the Netherlands, 1993–2001*

No. HIV negative (%)
(n = 6,467) No. HIV positive (%)
(n = 308) OR (95% CI)
(unadjusted) p value†
Fully susceptible
5,695 (88.1)
263 (85.4)
1.00

Resistant to 1 drug
544 (8.4)
29 (9.4)
1.15 (0.76–1.74)
0.542
Resistant to 2 drugs
193 (3.0)
11 (3.6)
1.23 (0.63–2.36)
0.622
Resistant to 3 drugs
24 (0.4)
5 (1.6)
4.51 (1.50–12.57)
0.001
Resistant to 4 drugs
11 (0.2)
0


Any resistance
772 (11.9)
45 (17.1)
1.26 (0.90–1.77)
0.188
Any resistance to:




  Isoniazid
420 (6.5)
29 (9.4)
1.50 (0.99–2.26)
0.059
  Rifampin
46 (0.7)
5 (1.6)
2.35 (0.82–6.24)
0.075
  Streptomycin
538 (8.3)
31 (10.1)
1.25 (0.83–1.86)
0.303
  Ethambutol
42 (0.6)
1 (0.3)
0.52 (0.03–3.49)
1.000
Multidrug resistance‡ 39 (0.6) 5 (1.6) 2.78 (1.09–7.10) 0.033

*New patients are defined as those not previously treated for tuberculosis. OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval.
†p value determined by Fisher exact test or χ2 test (Yates corrected), as appropriate.
‡Resistant to at least isoniazid and rifampin.

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