Genome Analysis Linking Recent European and African Influenza (H5N1) Viruses
Figure 1. Phylogenetic tree of hemagglutinin (HA) segments from 36 avian influenza samples. A 2001 strain (A/duck/Anyang/AVL-1/2001) is used as an outgroup at top. Clade V1 comprises the 5 Vietnamese isolates at the bottom of the tree, and clade V2 comprises the 9 Vietnamese isolates near the top of the tree. The European-Middle Eastern-African (EMA) clade contains the remaining 22 isolates sequenced in this study; the 3 subclades are indicated by red, blue, and purple lines. The reassortant strain, A/chicken/Nigeria/1047–62/2006, is highlighted in red. Note that 4 segments including HA from this reassortant fall in EMA-1; the other 4 fall in EMA-2, as shown in Appendix Figure 1. Bootstrap values supporting the 3 distinct EMA clades are taken from a consensus tree based on concatenated whole-genome sequences, excluding the reassortant strain. The consensus tree is provided as Appendix Figure 2.