Genome Analysis Linking Recent European and African Influenza (H5N1) Viruses
Figure 2. A) Phylogenetic tree relating the influenza A (H5N1) hemagglutinin (HA) segments of 589 avian, feline, and human viruses. The tree includes all HA segments isolated since 2000 from humans (82 isolates, minimum sequence length 1,000 nt), birds (503 isolates, minimum length 1500 nt), and cats (4 isolates). The 36 newly sequenced genomes are highlighted in color. Human cases, which occur in all 4 of the major influenza (H5N1) clades, are highlighted in red. The scale bar indicates an F84 distance of 0.01. A full-scale version of this tree is provided as Figure 3. B) Phylogeny of 71 complete genomes (avian isolates, all 8 segments concatenated) and 3 HA sequences (human isolates, marked with red arrows) from Europe, the Middle East, Africa, Russia, and Asia. Bootstrap values represent the percentage of 1,000 bootstrap replicates for which the partition implied by the edge was observed; see Methods for further details. The 3 European-Middle Eastern-African (EMA) subclades from Figure 1 are indicated with the same color scheme. Isolates from human hosts are found only in EMA-1. Colors indicate locales. The names of the isolates newly sequenced in this study are shown in boldface text.